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Facile characterization of ripple domains on exfoliated graphene
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10.1063/1.4737428
/content/aip/journal/rsi/83/7/10.1063/1.4737428
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/rsi/83/7/10.1063/1.4737428
View: Figures

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

General definition of scan direction relative to the cantilever body (top view).

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Images of the cantilever torsion measured during (a) scans parallel to the cantilever arm direction (longitudinal, TLON), and (b) scans perpendicular to the cantilever arm (lateral, TLAT). From left to right, the SiO2 substrate supporting the graphene layer is rotated counterclockwise. The red dashed arrow indicates the AFM tip scanning direction during each measurement. (Part (b) is the same as Fig. 2(a) in Ref. 2 and is used for comparison. Reprinted with permission from J. S. Choi, J.-S. Kim, I.-S. Byun, D. H. Lee, M. J. Lee, B. H. Park, C. Lee, D. Yoon, H. Cheong, K. H. Lee, Y.-W. Son, J. Y. Park, and M. Salmeron, Science 333, 607 (2011). Copyright 2011 AAAS.)

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Dependence of the normalized torsion on sample rotation angle when the AFM tip scans the surface along the (a) longitudinal (FLON) and (b) lateral (FLAT) directions. (Part (b) is the same as Fig. 2(b) in Ref. 2 and is used for comparison. Reprinted with permission from J. S. Choi, J.-S. Kim, I.-S. Byun, D. H. Lee, M. J. Lee, B. H. Park, C. Lee, D. Yoon, H. Cheong, K. H. Lee, Y.-W. Son, J. Y. Park, and M. Salmeron, Science 333, 607 (2011). Copyright 2011 AAAS.)

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Schematic diagrams for the in-plane direction of ripples (blue broken line) on graphene, cantilever scan, the normal reaction force exerted by the ripple, and torsion on the cantilever body during (a) longitudinal and (b) lateral scans at several sample rotation angles. The resultant sample rotation angle dependence of the cantilever torsion during (c) longitudinal, and (d) lateral scans. θ is the sample rotation angle (counter-clockwise) and α is the rotation angle of the nearest ripple (counter-clockwise) from the x-direction (ф = 0°). TR is the amplitude of the normal reaction force exerted by ripples.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(a) The relationship between ripple direction and cantilever torsion during longitudinal and lateral scans. (b) Longitudinal and (c) lateral scan torsion images obtained on a graphene sample. The torsion images are obtained by subtracting torsion values in the positive and negative scan directions. The calculated ripple direction dependence of (d) TLON and (e) TLAT. The shaded area exhibits the possible ripple directions of domains denoted by corresponding colors in (b) and (c). (f) Resultant ripple direction ranges determined by comparing longitudinal and lateral scan torsion images.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(a) Longitudinal and (b) lateral scan torsion images obtained on a graphene sample. The calculated ripple direction dependence of (c) TLON and (d) TLAT. (e) Resultant ripple direction ranges determined by comparing longitudinal and lateral scan torsion images. The lateral torsion images obtained during (f) positive and (g) negative directional scans. The torsion image of (b) is obtained by subtracting torsion values in the positive (f) and negative (g) scan directions. The blurred domain boundaries are visible in the circled region.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(a) Topographic image, and scan direction dependence of (b)–(f) torsion images and (g and h) signals for monolayer graphene on SiO2. The red dashed arrow and blue dashed line denote the fast scan and ripple directions at each domain, respectively.

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/content/aip/journal/rsi/83/7/10.1063/1.4737428
2012-07-26
2014-04-17
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Facile characterization of ripple domains on exfoliated graphene
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/rsi/83/7/10.1063/1.4737428
10.1063/1.4737428
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