(a) A photograph of the combustion apparatus. (b) The vertical cut view of the apparatus showing the arrangement of the main components.
Photographs of the sampling orifices at the tip of quartz nozzles used for different pressures.
Timing diagram of the operation of the ion trap.
Zoomed view of the time-of-flight mass spectrum of Ar showing the peak shape and peak width. The dashed line is Gaussian fitting of the histogram.
Response curve for Ar concentration. The peak area is normalized by photon intensity (○, nitrogen-diluted air; ●, nitrogen-diluted Ar; —, linear fitting). The inset view shows mass spectrum of Ar in 1000 times nitrogen-diluted air.
Mass spectrum of Xe obtained at the photon energy of 16.5 eV.
Photoionization mass spectra of the premixed C2H4/O2/Ar flames at the photon energy of 11.27 eV. The pressures of flames are (a) 30 Torr, (b) 150 Torr, and (c) 760 Torr, and the distances of the sampling nozzles above the burner surface are (a) 5.0 mm, (b) 2.0 mm, and (c) 1.5 mm, respectively.
Photonionization efficiency spectra of C3H4 and C2H4O from ethylene flame with pressure of 30 Torr. Measured ionization energies were labeled above the corresponding thresholds.
Aromatics observed in the premixed C2H4/O2/Ar flames at the photon energy of 11.27 eV. The pressures of flames are (a) 30 Torr, (b) 150 Torr, and (c) 760 Torr, and the heights of sampling nozzles above the burner surface are (a) 5.0 mm, (b) 2.0 mm, and (c) 1.5 mm, respectively.
Experimental mole fraction profiles of selected flame species (C2H4, O2, CH3, H2CO, C4H6, CH3OH) at pressures of 30 Torr (squares), 150 Torr (circles), and 760 Torr (triangles).
Vacuum system of the apparatus.
Experimental conditions for the fuel-rich C2H4/O2/Ar flames.
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