Optical configuration of optical tweezers; BE: beam expander, M1 and M3: mirrors, M2: piezo-controlled mirror, WP: wave plate, PBS: polarizing beam splitter, L1-6: lens, DM: dichroic mirror, F1 and F2: IR cut-off filters, CCD: charge-coupled device, QPD: quadrant photodiode, PC: personal computer.
(a) Time dependence of the phase lag between the laser and the particle displacements during the oscillation of the particle dispersed in water. (b) Plot of an input modulation voltage to the piezo-controlled mirror corresponding to the sinusoidal oscillation of the beam position and output voltages generated by the quadrant photodiode arising from the successive particle motion. The experimental conditions were as follows: A L = 320 nm, frequency = 1.0 Hz, and temperature = 298 K.
(a) Position of an optically-trapped particle during the substage movement, which generated a water flow alternated in direction. The particle position was detected by the CCD camera. (b) Spring constants plotted as a function of the laser power; 2.70 mV, 5.40 mV, 8.09 mV, and 10.8 mV. The laser power was measured at a location of the objective lens.
Relationship between the amplitude of the sinusoidal movements of the laser (A L) and the viscoelastic moduli (G ′ and G ″) for a worm-like micelle solution. The experimental conditions were as follows: frequency = 1.0 Hz, temperature = 298 K, and [CTAB] = [NaSal] = 100 mM.
(a) Frequency dependence of the viscoelastic moduli (G ′ and G ″) for a worm-like micelle solution at different temperatures. Solid lines denote the best-fit curves obtained using a Maxwell model with a single relaxation time. (b) Plot of logarithm of plateau modulus (G 0) and relaxation time (τ) as a function of the inverse temperature. The experimental conditions were as follows: A L = 320 nm, [CTAB] = 100 mM, and [NaSal] = 80 mM.
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