banner image
No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
Development and characterization of a multiple-coincidence ion-momentum imaging spectrometer
Rent this article for
Access full text Article
1. I. Nenner, and P. Morin, in VUV and Soft X-ray Photoionization, edited by U. Becker and D. A. Shirley (Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1996).
2. R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, Phys. Rep. 330, 95 (2000).
3. R. Continetti, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 52, 165 (2001).
4. K. Ueda and J. H. D. Eland, J. Phys. B 38, S839 (2005).
5. I. V. Hertel and W. Radloff, Rep. Prog. Phys. 69, 1897 (2006).
6. M. Takahashi, J. Cave, and J. H. D. Eland, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1337 (2000).
7. M. Lebech, J. C. Houver, and D. Dowek, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1866 (2002).
8. G. A. Garcia, L. Nahon, C. J. Harding, E. A. Mikhajlo, and I. Powis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 053302 (2005).
9. G. Prümper, H. Fukuzawa, T. Lischke, and K. Ueda, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 083104 (2007).
10. C. Miron, P. Morin, D. Céolin, L. Journel, and M. Simon, J. Chem. Phys. 128, 154314 (2008).
11. D. Holland and D. Shaw, Chem. Phys. 409, 11 (2012).
12. D. Chandler and P. Houston, J. Chem. Phys. 87, 1445 (1987).
13. J. H. D. Eland and A. Pearson, Meas. Sci. Technol. 1, 36 (1990).
14. A. T. J. B. Eppink and D. H. Parker, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3477 (1997).
15. A. I. Chichinin, T. Einfeld, C. Maul, and K.-H. Gericke, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1856 (2002).
16. W. Wiley and I. McLaren, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 26, 1150 (1955).
17. D. A. Dahl, Int. J. Mass Spectrometry 200, 3 (2000).
18. D. P. Seccombe and T. J. Reddish, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1330 (2001).
19. N. Saito, F. Heiser, O. Hemmers, K. Wieliczek, J. Viefhaus, and U. Becker, Phys. Rev. A 54, 2004 (1996).
20. L. Journel, R. Guillemin, A. Haouas, P. Lablanquie, F. Penent, J. Palaudoux, L. Andric, M. Simon, D. Céolin, T. Kaneyasu, J. Viefhaus, M. Braune, W. B. Li, C. Elkharrat, F. Catoire, J.-C. Houver, and D. Dowek, Phys. Rev. A 77, 042710 (2008).
21. R. N. Zare, Mol. Photochem. 4, 1 (1972).
22. J. Stöhr, NEXAFS Spectroscopy (Springer Verlag, 1992), pp. 4875.
23. Z. Pesic, D. Rolles, M. Perri, R. Bilodeau, G. Ackerman, B. Rude, A. Kilcoyne, J. D. Bozek, and N. Berrah, J. Electr. Spectr. Rel. Phenom. 155, 155 (2007).
24. H. Katayanagi and K. Mitsuke, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 081101 (2010).
25. M. Foltin, O. Echt, P. Scheier, B. Dünser, R. Wörgötter, D. Muigg, S. Matt, and T. D. Märk, J. Chem. Phys. 107, 6246 (1997).
View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.

Click to view

FIG. 1.

(a) Schematic drawing of the spectrometer. The grid on the right side of the extraction region is grounded. The electric field contours are shown in green. (b) Trajectories for three initial velocity directions are drawn from three different source points (spaced by ±5 mm in and ) to illustrate the radial focusing, for ions with a kinetic energy of 10 eV. Regardless of source point, the component determines the position on the detector in (a).

Image of FIG. 2.

Click to view

FIG. 2.

The largest resolvable mass calculated as a function of ion kinetic energy, . The largest resolvable mass (for = 1 e) is shown for different extraction voltages (V) under the Wiley-McLaren focusing condition.

Image of FIG. 3.

Click to view

FIG. 3.

Simulated performance for 3D-focusing of 10 u ions with 10 eV energy and for different elevation angles with respect to the -axis. Ions with zero kinetic energy are also included for comparison (rings). (a) The deviation from the nominal time of flight for ions originating at different longitudinal positions. The time deviation is by definition zero for the nominal source point at = 0. The simulation compares two lens potentials (on and off). Wiley–McLaren time-focusing to the first order is achieved in both cases. (b) The detection radius, , is shown as a function of radial source position for the same five cases, all without transverse momentum. Enabling the radial lens reduces the spread caused by the extended source to less than 1/20. (c) The deviation from nominal time of flight for ions originating at different radii is affected by the lens, but this is a minor effect compared to (a). (d) The coupling between initial transverse momentum (proportional to on the detector) and the flight time is determined by all field inhomogeneities. This deviation may exceed 10 ns at large radii, while the contribution by the focusing lens is much smaller. The total deviation can be accounted for by a quadratic correction (Eq. (8) ).

Image of FIG. 4.

Click to view

FIG. 4.

The ion momentum represented in a time vs. radius correlation plot of the fragment C+ from the C+/O+ fragment pair after excitation to the C 1s−1π* state in CO at 287.40 eV. The ion kinetic energy scale is indicated in the plot.

Image of FIG. 5.

Click to view

FIG. 5.

(a) The kinetic-energy correlation between C+ and O+ ions measured after C 1s–σ* excitation in carbon monoxide. (b) The integration of the distribution along the diagonal. The primary contribution to the width arises from the resolution of the spectrometer and the thermal energy of the molecules. (c) The total kinetic energy distribution is shown with a black line; this is a histogram of the sum of the two fragment energies. The peaks visible in the plot correspond to dissociation from the dication potential energy surfaces to the left to the fragment ground states (bottom).

Image of FIG. 6.

Click to view

FIG. 6.

Time integrated two-dimensional distribution of the O+ fragment on the detector after excitation to (a) C 1s−1π* resonance and (b) C 1s−1σ* resonance . (c) Three-dimensional representation of the C+ ion momentum at the C 1s−1π* resonance. The molecular axis is perpendicular to the direction of the polarisation vector, ε, indicated with a vertical arrow.

Image of FIG. 7.

Click to view

FIG. 7.

(a) Schematic diagram of the geometry of the setup. is perpendicular to the propagation direction of the synchrotron radiation (SR) and to the spectrometer axis. (b) Calculated angular distributions for different anisotropy parameters obtained from Eq. (10) . (c) Measured distribution of C+ ions as a function of angle θ for ions with an energy in the interval 11.0–17.5 eV. Each point represents the integration of ϕ over 2π, and over Δθ = 10°. The solid line shows the best fit of Eq. (10) with β = −0.94.

Image of FIG. 8.

Click to view

FIG. 8.

TOF spectrum after core-electron excitation to the C 1s−1π* state at 286.2 eV. The subplots show (a) the mass spectrum of the isotopes of fullerene and (b) of the doubly charged fullerene and its fragments.


Article metrics loading...



The design and performance of a high-resolution momentum-imaging spectrometer for ions which is optimized for experiments using synchrotron radiation is presented. High collection efficiency is achieved by a focusing electrostatic lens; a long drift tube improves mass resolution and a position-sensitive detector enables measurement of the transverse momentum of ions. The optimisation of the lens for particle momentum measurement at the highest resolution is described. We discuss the overall performance of the spectrometer and present examples demonstrating the momentum resolution for both kinetics and for angular measurements in molecular fragmentation for carbon monoxide and fullerenes. Examples are presented that confirm that complete space-time focussing is possible for a two-field three-dimensional imaging spectrometer.


Full text loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Development and characterization of a multiple-coincidence ion-momentum imaging spectrometer