Index of content:
Volume 84, Issue 12, December 2013
- Optics; Atoms and Molecules; Spectroscopy; Photon Detectors
84(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4829637View Description Hide Description
We present a parallel multiplex laser feedback interferometer based on spatial multiplexing which avoids the signal crosstalk in the former feedback interferometer. The interferometer outputs two close parallel laser beams, whose frequencies are shifted by two acousto-optic modulators by 2Ω simultaneously. A static reference mirror is inserted into one of the optical paths as the reference optical path. The other beam impinges on the target as the measurement optical path. Phase variations of the two feedback laser beams are simultaneously measured through heterodyne demodulation with two different detectors. Their subtraction accurately reflects the target displacement. Under typical room conditions, experimental results show a resolution of 1.6 nm and accuracy of 7.8 nm within the range of 100 μm.
Scanning-free grazing emission x-ray fluorescence by means of an angular dispersive arrangement with a two-dimensional position-sensitive area detector84(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4838575View Description Hide Description
We report on the application of a two-dimensional position-sensitive area detector towards grazing emission x-ray fluorescence (GEXRF) spectroscopy. GEXRF allows for surface-sensitive studies with nanometer-scale accuracy in the depth direction by measuring the intensity variation of an x-ray fluorescence line with the grazing emission angle. The presented experimental setup is based on a fixed sample-detector arrangement and does not require any moving components. We show that the dispersion of the grazing emission angle along a position-sensitive detector allows to acquire with an excellent angular resolution a full GEXRF profile in a single measurement. Moreover, the use of a two-dimensional detector allows to perform experiments with an increased solid angle of detection per emission angle. This results in combination with the nonsequential and simultaneous acquisition of the GEXRF profiles of different emission lines in considerably reduced acquisition times. The realization, the demands, and the main characteristics of the scanning-free GEXRF setup will be presented. A few experimental examples will serve to illustrate the analytical possibilities offered by the presented setup.
84(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4838555View Description Hide Description
In this paper we describe a new variant of null ellipsometry to determine thicknesses and optical properties of thin films on a substrate at cryogenic temperatures. In the PCSA arrangement of ellipsometry the polarizer and the compensator are placed before the substrate and the analyzer after it. Usually, in the null ellipsometry the polarizer and the analyzer are rotated to find the searched minimum in intensity. In our variant we rotate the polarizer and the compensator instead, both being placed in the incoming beam before the substrate. Therefore the polarisation analysis of the reflected beam can be realized by an analyzer at fixed orientation. We developed this method for investigations of thin cryogenic films inside a vacuum chamber where the analyzer and detector had to be placed inside the cold shield at a temperature of T ≈ 90 K close to the substrate. All other optical components were installed at the incoming beam line outside the vacuum chamber, including all components which need to be rotated during the measurements. Our null ellipsometry variant has been tested with condensed krypton films on a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite substrate (HOPG) at a temperature of T ≈ 25 K. We show that it is possible to determine the indices of refraction of condensed krypton and of the HOPG substrate as well as thickness of krypton films with reasonable accuracy.
84(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4838696View Description Hide Description
We present and characterize fiber mirrors and a miniaturized ion-trap design developed to integrate a fiber-based Fabry-Perot cavity (FFPC) with a linear Paul trap for use in cavity-QED experiments with trapped ions. Our fiber-mirror fabrication process not only enables the construction of FFPCs with small mode volumes, but also allows us to minimize the influence of the dielectric fiber mirrors on the trapped-ion pseudopotential. We discuss the effect of clipping losses for long FFPCs and the effect of angular and lateral displacements on the coupling efficiencies between cavity and fiber. Optical profilometry allows us to determine the radii of curvature and ellipticities of the fiber mirrors. From finesse measurements, we infer a single-atom cooperativity of up to 12 for FFPCs longer than 200 μm in length; comparison to cavities constructed with reference substrate mirrors produced in the same coating run indicates that our FFPCs have similar scattering losses. We characterize the birefringence of our fiber mirrors, finding that careful fiber-mirror selection enables us to construct FFPCs with degenerate polarization modes. As FFPCs are novel devices, we describe procedures developed for handling, aligning, and cleaning them. We discuss experiments to anneal fiber mirrors and explore the influence of the atmosphere under which annealing occurs on coating losses, finding that annealing under vacuum increases the losses for our reference substrate mirrors. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements indicate that these losses may be attributable to oxygen depletion in the mirror coating. Special design considerations enable us to introduce a FFPC into a trapped ion setup. Our unique linear Paul trap design provides clearance for such a cavity and is miniaturized to shield trapped ions from the dielectric fiber mirrors. We numerically calculate the trap potential in the absence of fibers. In the experiment additional electrodes can be used to compensate distortions of the potential due to the fibers. Home-built fiber feedthroughs connect the FFPC to external optics, and an integrated nanopositioning system affords the possibility of retracting or realigning the cavity without breaking vacuum.
A platform for x-ray absorption fine structure study of dynamically compressed materials above 1 Mbar84(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4841935View Description Hide Description
A platform consisting of a multi-shock drive and an implosion backlighter has been developed for x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements on materials compressed to multi-Mbar pressures. The experimental setup, target design, and backlighter characteristics are presented. Extended XAFS (EXAFS) measurements for various materials have been demonstrated. A quintuple-crystal design is described to enhance the efficiency of the x-ray spectrometer, enabling observation of very weak EXAFS signals in a single shot.
Laser wakefield generated X-ray probe for femtosecond time-resolved measurements of ionization states of warm dense aluminum84(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4842237View Description Hide Description
We have developed a laser wakefield generated X-ray probe to directly measure the temporal evolution of the ionization states in warm dense aluminum by means of absorption spectroscopy. As a promising alternative to the free electron excited X-ray sources, Betatron X-ray radiation, with femtosecond pulse duration, provides a new technique to diagnose femtosecond to picosecond transitions in the atomic structure. The X-ray probe system consists of an adjustable Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) microscope for focusing the Betatron emission to a small probe spot on the sample being measured, and a flat Potassium Acid Phthalate Bragg crystal spectrometer to measure the transmitted X-ray spectrum in the region of the aluminum K-edge absorption lines. An X-ray focal spot size of around 50 μm was achieved after reflection from the platinum-coated 10-cm-long KB microscope mirrors. Shot to shot positioning stability of the Betatron radiation was measured resulting in an rms shot to shot variation in spatial pointing on the sample of 16 μm. The entire probe setup had a spectral resolution of ∼1.5 eV, a detection bandwidth of ∼24 eV, and an overall photon throughput efficiency of the order of 10−5. Approximately 10 photons were detected by the X-ray CCD per laser shot within the spectrally resolved detection band. Thus, it is expected that hundreds of shots will be required per absorption spectrum to clearly observe the K-shell absorption features expected from the ionization states of the warm dense aluminum.
Performance characterization of fiber Bragg grating thermal response in space vacuum thermal environment84(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4842295View Description Hide Description
We investigated the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) thermal response in space vacuum thermal environment. The FBGs were packaged with 6061-T6 aluminum. The liquid nitrogen immersion experiment results show that its wavelength shift standard deviation is 0.76 pm for 217 h. The combination effect of vacuum and cryogenic temperature was studied by thermal cycling process in space environment simulator. The FBG sensors show accuracy better than 2% full scale, and the hysteresis errors are below 1%. It proves that these metal packaged FBG sensors can survive and meet the requirement of space measurement.
84(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4842296View Description Hide Description
A high efficiency xenon excimer lamp radiating at 172 nm, with an internal phosphor coating shifting to UVC has been demonstrated, showing the feasibility of a cost effective alternative to UVC mercury lamps. Fluorescent lamps so designed can be fabricated in various geometries with high efficiency. Unlike other xenon excimer lamps based on dielectric barrier discharges this new system is highly compatible with existing and proposed phosphors as it operates in an inert gas environment at modest temperature and is subject only to 172 nm primary radiation. Using a lamp coated with a UVC phosphor we have demonstrated the feasibility of germicidal and curing lamps with 40% energy conversion efficiency and high power density. These lamps are rapidly switchable, have long projected lifetimes and are compatible with dimmers.
84(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4847135View Description Hide Description
As many precision laser spectroscopy experiments require frequency stabilized lasers, development of long-term stabilized lasers is of great interest. In this work, we report long-term frequency stabilization of a 280 nm deep ultraviolet laser to a high precision wavemeter with digital servo control such that the long-term drift of the laser frequency was greatly reduced. Long-term laser frequency drift was measured with a fiber frequency comb system over 8 h. After locking, the maximum drift rate of the 280 nm laser was lowered from 576 MHz/h to 6.4 MHz/h. With proper environment control of the wavemeter, the maximum drift rate of the 280 nm laser was further lowered to less than 480 kHz/h. The locked laser system was successfully used in a Mg + ions trapping experiment, which was also discussed in this work.
84(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4847156View Description Hide Description
A momentum imaging spectrometer has been built for studying the electron impact molecular fragmentation dynamics. The setup consists of a pulsed electron gun and a time of flight system as well as a two-dimensional time and position sensitive multi-hit detector. The charged fragments with kinetic energy up to 10 eV can be detected in 4π solid angles and their three-dimensional momentum vectors can be reconstructed. The apparatus is tested by electron impact ionization of Ar and dissociative ionization of CO2. By analyzing the ion-ion coincidence spectra, the complete and incomplete Coulomb fragmentation channels for and are identified. The kinetic energy release (KER) and angular correlation for the two-body breakup channel → O+ + CO+ are reported. The peak value of total KER is found to be 6.8 eV which is consistent with the previous photoion-photoion coincidence studies, and the correlation angle of O+ and CO+ is also explicitly determined to be 172.5°.
84(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4848875View Description Hide Description
A portable photothermal deflection spectroscopy apparatus for accurate analysis of gas mixtures containing volatile organic substances is presented. The main technical aspects of the photothermal deflection cell, and of the gas sampling equipment are discussed in details. Finally, we present a straightforward industrial application of the apparatus concerning the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the gas emissions from thermal treatment of ceramic glazes.
Low-noise low-jitter 32-pixels CMOS single-photon avalanche diodes array for single-photon counting from 300 nm to 900 nm84(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4850677View Description Hide Description
We developed a single-photon counting multichannel detection system, based on a monolithic linear array of 32 CMOS SPADs (Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes). All channels achieve a timing resolution of 100 ps (full-width at half maximum) and a photon detection efficiency of 50% at 400 nm. Dark count rate is very low even at room temperature, being about 125 counts/s for 50 μm active area diameter SPADs. Detection performance and microelectronic compactness of this CMOS SPAD array make it the best candidate for ultra-compact time-resolved spectrometers with single-photon sensitivity from 300 nm to 900 nm.
84(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4853435View Description Hide Description
The design and performance of a high-resolution momentum-imaging spectrometer for ions which is optimized for experiments using synchrotron radiation is presented. High collection efficiency is achieved by a focusing electrostatic lens; a long drift tube improves mass resolution and a position-sensitive detector enables measurement of the transverse momentum of ions. The optimisation of the lens for particle momentum measurement at the highest resolution is described. We discuss the overall performance of the spectrometer and present examples demonstrating the momentum resolution for both kinetics and for angular measurements in molecular fragmentation for carbon monoxide and fullerenes. Examples are presented that confirm that complete space-time focussing is possible for a two-field three-dimensional imaging spectrometer.
- Particle Sources, Optics and Acceleration; Particle Detectors
Measurements of aperture and beam lifetime using movable beam scrapers in Indus-2 electron storage ring84(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4833395View Description Hide Description
In this paper, the measurements of vertical and horizontal aperture which are available for stable beam motion in Indus-2 at beam energy 2.5 GeV using movable beam scrapers are presented. These beam scrapers are installed in one of the long straight sections in the ring. With the movement of beam scrapers towards the beam centre, the beam lifetime is measured. The beam lifetime data obtained from the movement of vertical and horizontal beam scrapers are analyzed. The contribution of beam loss due to beam-gas scattering (vacuum lifetime) and electron-electron scattering within a beam bunch (Touschek lifetime) is separated from the measured beam lifetime at different positions of the beam scrapers. Vertical and horizontal beam sizes at scrapers location are estimated from the scraper movement towards the beam centre in quantum lifetime limit and their values closely agree with measured value obtained using X-ray diagnostic beamline.
- Nuclear Physics, Fusion and Plasmas
84(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4834755View Description Hide Description
The energy resolved efficiency of two bolometer detector prototypes for ITER with 4 channels each and absorber thicknesses of 4.5 μm and 12.5 μm, respectively, has been calibrated in a broad spectral range from 1.46 eV up to 25 keV. The calibration in the energy range above 3 eV was performed against previously calibrated silicon photodiodes using monochromatized synchrotron radiation provided by five different beamlines of Physikalische Technische Bundesanstalt at the electron storage rings BESSY II and Metrology Light Source in Berlin. For the measurements in the visible range, a setup was realised using monochromatized halogen lamp radiation and a calibrated laser power meter as reference. The measurements clearly demonstrate that the efficiency of the bolometer prototype detectors in the range from 50 eV up to ≈6 keV is close to unity; at a photon energy of 20 keV the bolometer with the thick absorber detects 80% of the photons, the one with the thin absorber about 50%. This indicates that the detectors will be well capable of measuring the plasma radiation expected from the standard ITER scenario. However, a minimum absorber thickness will be required for the high temperatures in the central plasma. At 11.56 keV, the sharp Pt-L3 absorption edge allowed to cross-check the absorber thickness by fitting the measured efficiency to the theoretically expected absorption of X-rays in a homogeneous Pt-layer. Furthermore, below 50 eV the efficiency first follows the losses due to reflectance expected for Pt, but below 10 eV it is reduced further by a factor of 2 for the thick absorber and a factor of 4 for the thin absorber. Most probably, the different histories in production, storage, and operation led to varying surface conditions and additional loss channels.
84(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4838658View Description Hide Description
Triple Langmuir probe (TLP) diagnostic system with its necessary driving circuit is developed and successfully applies for time-resolved measurement of plasma parameters in the negative glow region of pulsating-dc discharge. This technique allows the instantaneous measurement of electron temperature [T −], electron number density [n −] as well as plasma fluctuations without any voltage or frequency sweep. In TLP configuration two probes are differentially biased and serve as a floating symmetric double probe whereas the third probe is simply floating into plasma to measure floating potential as a function of time and thus incorporates the effect of plasma fluctuations. As an example of the application to time-dependent plasmas, basic plasma parameters such as floating potential, electron temperature, and electron number density in low pressure air discharge are determined as a function of time for different fill pressure. The results demonstrate temporal evolution of plasma parameters and thus plasma generation progression for different fill pressures.
An in situ accelerator-based diagnostic for plasma-material interactions science on magnetic fusion devices84(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4832420View Description Hide Description
This paper presents a novel particle accelerator-based diagnostic that nondestructively measures the evolution of material surface compositions inside magnetic fusion devices. The diagnostic's purpose is to contribute to an integrated understanding of plasma-material interactions in magnetic fusion, which is severely hindered by a dearth of in situ material surface diagnosis. The diagnostic aims to remotely generate isotopic concentration maps on a plasma shot-to-shot timescale that cover a large fraction of the plasma-facing surface inside of a magnetic fusion device without the need for vacuum breaks or physical access to the material surfaces. Our instrument uses a compact (∼1 m), high-current (∼1 milliamp) radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator to inject 0.9 MeV deuterons into the Alcator C-Mod tokamak at MIT. We control the tokamak magnetic fields – in between plasma shots – to steer the deuterons to material surfaces where the deuterons cause high-Q nuclear reactions with low-Z isotopes ∼5 μm into the material. The induced neutrons and gamma rays are measured with scintillation detectors; energy spectra analysis provides quantitative reconstruction of surface compositions. An overview of the diagnostic technique, known as accelerator-based in situ materials surveillance (AIMS), and the first AIMS diagnostic on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak is given. Experimental validation is shown to demonstrate that an optimized deuteron beam is injected into the tokamak, that low-Z isotopes such as deuterium and boron can be quantified on the material surfaces, and that magnetic steering provides access to different measurement locations. The first AIMS analysis, which measures the relative change in deuterium at a single surface location at the end of the Alcator C-Mod FY2012 plasma campaign, is also presented.
84(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4841915View Description Hide Description
An ultra-fast extreme ultra-violet (EUV) movie camera has been developed for imaging magnetic reconnection in the Caltech spheromak/astrophysical jet experiment. The camera consists of a broadband Mo:Si multilayer mirror, a fast decaying YAG:Ce scintillator, a visible light block, and a high-speed visible light CCD camera. The camera can capture EUV images as fast as 3.3 × 106 frames per second with 0.5 cm spatial resolution. The spectral range is from 20 eV to 60 eV. EUV images reveal strong, transient, highly localized bursts of EUV radiation when magnetic reconnection occurs.
84(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4847056View Description Hide Description
Measurements of the response of LaBr3(Ce) to 2.5 MeV neutrons have been carried out at the Frascati Neutron Generator and at tokamak facilities with deuterium plasmas. The observed spectrum has been interpreted by means of a Monte Carlo model. It is found that the main contributor to the measured response is neutron inelastic scattering on 79Br, 81Br, and 139La. An extrapolation of the count rate response to 14 MeV neutrons from deuterium-tritium plasmas is also presented. The results are of relevance for the design of γ-ray diagnostics of fusion burning plasmas.
Langmuir probe measurements in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized non-equilibrium cutting arc: Analysis of the electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe84(2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4848916View Description Hide Description
This work describes the application of Langmuir probe diagnostics to the measurement of the electron temperature in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized, non-equilibrium cutting arc. The electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe was analysed, assuming that the standard exponential expression describing the electron current to the probe in collision-free plasmas can be applied under the investigated conditions. A procedure is described which allows the determination of the errors introduced in time-averaged probe data due to small-amplitude plasma fluctuations. It was found that the experimental points can be gathered into two well defined groups allowing defining two quite different averaged electron temperature values. In the low-current region the averaged characteristic was not significantly disturbed by the fluctuations and can reliably be used to obtain the actual value of the averaged electron temperature. In particular, an averaged electron temperature of 0.98 ± 0.07 eV (= 11400 ± 800 K) was found for the central core of the arc (30 A) at 3.5 mm downstream from the nozzle exit. This average included not only a time-average over the time fluctuations but also a spatial-average along the probe collecting length. The fitting of the high-current region of the characteristic using such electron temperature value together with the corrections given by the fluctuation analysis showed a relevant departure of local thermal equilibrium in the arc core.