Simulation results of errors caused by mismatched transistor properties in a current mirror with 1 mA current. Due to differences in the current gain and in VBE, currents being traveling through transistors are not equal.
Simulated effect of transistor differences in a differential amplifier.
Structural 3D-model of the solid core oven.
Solid core transistor oven.
Block diagram of the measurement system.
Measurement circuit of NPN-transistors.
32 places for transistors on a carriage holder.
Correction factor for each measurement channel.
Calibration effect in base-to-emitter voltage demonstrated with two transistors.
VBE versus temperature behavior of four arbitrarily selected transistors.
Theoretically calculated (continuous line) and measured (dashed line) thermal dependence of transistors’ base-to-emitter voltage.
Effect of temperature on transistors’ VBE (upper figure) and current gain (lower figure). Both signals are the averages of 32 measured transistors.
Distribution of base to emitter voltage in transistor series purchased from different suppliers.
Supplier Y current gain distribution.
Dot dispersions of current gain and base-to-emitter voltage for NPN- and PNP- type transistors from one supplier.
Dot dispersion of the first 50 transistors from NPN and PNP transistor batches.
Example of bipolar transistor measurement batches.
Example of four matched complementary transistors.
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