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A flash-lamp based device for fluorescence detection and identification of individual pollen grains
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FIG. 1.

(a) Principal scheme of aerosol detector. (b) Experimental scheme : I1 – main air inlet; I2 – auxiliary air inlet; Y1, Y2 – laser diodes (655 nm, 780 nm); D1, D2 – photomultipliers (filtered for 655 nm and 780 nm); L1 – reflective objective; L2 – bi-convex lens; F1 – filter set for detection; F2 – filter set for excitation; G1 – diffraction grating; D3 – 32-anode photomultiplier; SSA – scatter analysis system; XFL – Xenon flash lamp; SAS – spectrum analysis system. (b) Aerosol detector and its power supply.

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FIG. 2.

(a) CAD drawing of the nozzle. (b) CFD simulation of output flow of the nozzle (color scale represents absolute velocity field). (c) Flow diameter on the nozzle outlet measured by injection of water droplets.

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FIG. 3.

CW laser focusing : La – CW laser; Ls – spherical lens; Ir – iris with clear aperture ; Lc – cylindrical lens; Wi – optical window: (a) side view; (b) top view; (c) laser spot without spherical lens Ls; (d) laser spot without spherical lens Ls; (e) laser spot with spherical lens Ls; (f) laser spot with spherical lens Ls.

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FIG. 4.

Detection geometry for one scattering wavelength.

Image of FIG. 5.

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FIG. 5.

Filtering of the flash lamp (upper plot): blue – reference lamp spectrum; red – filtered lamp spectrum. Excitation and detection filter sets (insert plot): XFL – Xenon flash lamp; F1.1, F1.2, F1.4 – 266 nm mirrors; F1.3 – short pass filter; F1.5 – 250 nm interference filter; F1.6 – dichroic mirror (UV reflection); F2.1 – dichroic mirror (VIS transmission); F2.2 – low pass filter; L1 – reflective objective. Radiant sensitivity of 32-anode PMT convoluted with the transmission of detection filter set (lower plot).

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FIG. 6.

(a) and (c) Scatter analysis system for 655 nm and 780 nm PMTs; (b) Spectrum acquisition system. Blocks: TI – transimpedance amplifier; B1, B2, B3 – buffers, AC – analogue to digital converter; L1, L2 – programmable logic; VR – voltage reference; CO – comparator; DC – digital to analogue converter; IN – 32-channel integrator scheme; DS – 32-channel analogue to digital conversion scheme. Analogue signals: PI – from scatter PMTs; AO – amplified output of scatter signal; SI – from 32-anode PMT; PP – gain regulation of scatter PMTs. Digital signals: DT – trigger from CO; BS – communication bus; UI – USB interface to host; EI – Ethernet interface to host.

Image of FIG. 7.

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FIG. 7.

CAD drawing of hardware components of detector: (a) nozzle block and chamber assembly; (b) measurement chamber. (c) Photograph of actual detector (left) and its power supply(right).

Image of FIG. 8.

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FIG. 8.

Real-time detection of Mulberry pollens: (a) scattered light from 655 nm CW laser; (b) fluorescence spectrum; (c) scattered light from 780 nm CW laser.

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FIG. 9.

Mean values (at least 30 events) of scattering maxima for (green) and (red) lasers. Error bars reports interval with 50% of events within it.

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FIG. 10.

Normalized time-resolved scattering traces for (a) microspheres and (b) Ragweed pollen.

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FIG. 11.

Refraction angle simulation of a particle passage through a laser beam (particle diameter , beam diameter , particle velocity ): (a) double refraction angle as function of time, (b) Mie scattering profile, (c) particle passage through the beam. (d) Measured mean time-resolved scattering traces at .

Image of FIG. 12.

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FIG. 12.

Averaged fluorescence spectra (at least 30 events) for different pollens: (a) Mulberry; (b) Ragweed; (c) Pecan. Dashed lines show 96% confidence interval (±2σ).

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FIG. 13.

First principal component (fluorescence raw data plus ratio between the scattering intensity maxima and the total photon counts in the fluorescence spectrum) versus scattering intensity maxima at .


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Table I.

Pollen sizes and detection statistics.


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We present a novel optical aerosol particle detector based on Xe flash lamp excitation and spectrally resolved fluorescence acquisition. We demonstrate its performances on three natural pollens acquiring in real-time scattering intensity at two wavelengths, sub-microsecond time-resolved scattering traces of the particles’ passage in the focus, and UV-excited fluorescence spectra. We show that the device gives access to a rather specific detection of the bioaerosol particles.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: A flash-lamp based device for fluorescence detection and identification of individual pollen grains