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An air flow sensor for neonatal mechanical ventilation applications based on a novel fiber-optic sensing technique
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10.1063/1.4798298
/content/aip/journal/rsi/84/3/10.1063/1.4798298
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/rsi/84/3/10.1063/1.4798298

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Optical fiber flow sensor scheme: (a) the light from the emitting fiber hits the photodiode array, built on an integrated circuit. At null flow rate, the maximum light intensity emitted has a reference position corresponding to the maximum signal from the photodiodes; (b) as well as the flow rate Q changes, the emitting fiber bends and consequently the maximum moves from its reference position along the array direction.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Scheme of optical fiber flow sensor with main dimensions (not in scale). Mono-directional sensor: Rf = 10 mm; RD = 5 mm; L = 55 mm; d1 = 0.5 mm; d2 = 0.7 mm. Bi-directional sensor: Rf = 10 mm; RD = 3 mm; L = 50 mm; d1 = 0.5 mm; d2 = 0.7 mm.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Scheme for the evaluation of total displacement ΔTOT measured by photodiode array.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(a) Schematic of experimental setup (not in scale). (b) Experimental setup. L: light emitting diode supplying optical fiber; OF: optical fiber; OFS: optical fiber air flow sensor; RF: reference air flow sensor; AC: data acquisition card; C: aspheric collimator; P: pipeline.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Measurements results for bi-directional flow sensor: detected illumination patterns for different air flow values.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Measurements results: displacement Δ as a function of flow rate Q. (a) mono-directional air flow sensor; (b) bi-directional air flow sensor.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Intensity distribution profiles for two different air flow values. (a) Low air flow rate of 3 l/min: illumination patterns have their maximum in correspondence of the same photodiode of the array (on 98 different scans the most illuminated photodiode, is the element number 10). (b) High air flow rate of 15 l/min: illumination patterns have their maximum in correspondence of different photodiodes, as well as on 109 different scans, the most illuminated photodiode, shifts between the element number 90 and the element number 103.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Mathematical model expressed by (19) , experimental data and PDFs of the air flow rate obtained through the Monte Carlo Method (MCM). (a) mono-directional configuration; (b) bi-directional configuration.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

PDFs assigned to the input quantities in order to perform the propagation of distribution. N(μ, σ) is a Gaussian PDF with mean m and standard deviation σ; U(μ, σ) is a uniform PDF with mean m and standard deviation σ.

Generic image for table
Table II.

Mono-directional configuration of air flow sensor: PDFs assigned according to independent displacements detected by means of the photodiode array. N(μ, σ) is a Gaussian PDF with mean m and standard deviation σ; U(μ, σ) is an uniform PDF with mean m and standard deviation σ.

Generic image for table
Table III.

Bi-directional configuration of air flow sensor: PDFs assigned according to independent displacements detected by means of the photodiode array. N(μ, σ) is a Gaussian PDF with mean μ and standard deviation σ; U(μ, σ) is an uniform PDF with mean μ and standard deviation σ.

Generic image for table
Table IV.

Mono-directional configuration of air flow sensor: shortest coverage interval and percentage error ɛ% of Q, evaluated by means of the propagation of distributions (MCM).

Generic image for table
Table V.

Positive displacements of bi-directional configuration of air flow sensor: shortest coverage interval and percentage error ɛ% of Q, evaluated by means of the propagation of distributions (MCM).

Generic image for table
Table VI.

Negative displacements of bi-directional configuration of air flow sensor: shortest coverage interval and percentage error ɛ% of Q, evaluated by means of the propagation of distributions (MCM).

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/content/aip/journal/rsi/84/3/10.1063/1.4798298
2013-03-29
2014-04-23
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: An air flow sensor for neonatal mechanical ventilation applications based on a novel fiber-optic sensing technique
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/rsi/84/3/10.1063/1.4798298
10.1063/1.4798298
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