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A new highly automated sputter equipment for in situ investigation of deposition processes with synchrotron radiation
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Schematic drawing of the in situ GISAXS and GIWAXS measurements during different sputter deposition technologies with: (1) rotatable flange, (2) sputter guns, (3) vacuum deposition chamber, (4) sample stage, (5) X-ray detector, (6) plasma, (7) beam defining slit system, (8) sample positioning device, (9) additional sputter gun for GLAD sputter experiments, (10) sample change robot, (11) sample container, (12) exit window, (13) mask, and (14) position of the upper sputter flange. (a) Principle of standard sputter deposition. The components placed on the green background belong to the HASE-device. (VDD) variable distance to detector (0.1–10 m), (α) angle between sputter gun and sample surface the angle can be varied from 46° to 90°) by turning the upper rotatable flange (1). (b) Principle of co-sputter experiments. (c) Schematic sketch to show the possibility to install masks.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Overview of the highly automated sputter equipment with (1) sputter deposition chamber, (2) transfer chamber with load lock, (3) sample transfer system, (4) sputter guns, (5) power supplies, (6) gas inlet valve, (7) air pads to move the system, (8) sample rotation stage, (9) sample positioning stage, (10) control-electronics rack, and (11) flange with an additional sputter gun. (a) Photograph of the transfer chamber with: (12) transfer arm, (13) load lock, and (14) transfer valve. (b) Photograph of the inner part of the chamber with: (15) sample stage, (16) pick-and-place robot, and (17) sample holder. The photograph shows the robot just before setting the sample holder into the sample stage.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

X-ray scattering geometry characteristics of the HASE chamber. Beam entrance window is (x-win1). The GISAXS window (x-win2) enables the detection of scattering angles 2θ ranging from 0° to 21°. The upper window (x-win3) enables the detection of scattering angles 2θ ranging from 41° to 60° and can be used for GIWAXS and fluorescence measurements.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

View of the inner parts of the sputter chamber, of the transfer system and of the installed sample change robot with: (1) transfer chamber, (2) load lock, (3) pick-and-place robot, (4) sample stage, (5) rotatable flange, (6) sputter guns, (7) automated shutter, (8) transfer arm, and (17) goniometer for sample rotation. (a) Enlarged view of the sample transfer arm with: (9) sample holder and (10) sample carrier. (b) Enlarged view of the sample stage and the patented clamping device with: (9) sample holder, (11) ceramic heating element, (12) cooling channel, and (13) clamping device. The sample stage is mounted on a rotation feed through which enables a free rotation of ±180°. (c) Schematic drawing of a released sample holder with: (14) curved track, (15) clamping claw, and (s) unclamp direction. (d) Schematic drawing of a fixed sample holder with: (16) fixture cylinders and (F) tension force direction.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Visualization of the sample transfer from four different points of view. (a) Top view of the transfer arm, (b) side view of the transfer arm, (c) view of the pick-and-place robot, and (d) view of the sample stage and clamping device (enhanced online). [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4798544.1]doi: 10.1063/1.4798544.1.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

HASE-apparatus setup in simultaneous GISAXS and GIWAXS geometry incorporated in the MiNaXS beamline. The illustration shows the possibility to install bulky equipment at an extended sample position behind the guard slits. (1) Optical bench with guard slit system, (2) sputter deposition chamber, (3) WAXS detector device with Pilatus 300K (Dectris, Switzerland), (4) variable flight tube, and (5) SAXS detector device with installed Pilatus 1M detector (Dectris, Switzerland).

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(a) GISAXS (sample to detector distance = 4826 mm) of Au on SiO x . To sketch the scattering geometry, we included a real space coordinate system x/y/z and a reciprocal space coordinate system q y and q z . They are the wavevector transfers parallel and perpendicular to the sample surface. k i and k f denote the incoming beam and a scattered beam with . α i denotes the angle of the incoming beam to the sample surface (grazing angle). L1 denotes the side maxima produced by the presence of Au nanoclusters. H1 denotes the maxima in q z -direction, stemming from the height of the nanoclusters. IDG denotes the intermodule gap of the detector and SBS denotes the point-like specular beam stop used to protect the detector from the high-intense specular reflection. (b) Scattered intensity versus time during sputter deposition of Au on SiO x at two different substrate temperatures (green triangles 26 °C, red crosses 150 ○C) in GIUSAXS geometry (sample-to-detector-distance 8650 mm). The intensity was extracted from a series of two-dimensional detector images at the reciprocal space point of q y = 0, q z = 0.846 nm−1. The two lines indicate a linear growth of the deposited thickness for both temperatures.


Generic image for table
Table I.

Sputter rates for Au and Al targets at different sputter powers at a sputter pressure of 1.5 × 10−2 mbar.



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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: A new highly automated sputter equipment for in situ investigation of deposition processes with synchrotron radiation