Schematic drawing (left) and photograph (right) of the PLD system with dual in situ RHEED and spectroscopic ellipsometry components taking simultaneous measurements.
(a)–(f) In situ data taken simultaneously by RHEED and SE during LMO thin-film growth on STO substrate. RHEED diffraction patterns taken at times (a) 0 s, (b) 250 s, and (c) 1080 s. (d) RHEED intensity oscillations. The two vertical lines indicate the start and finish of growth. SE dynamical spectra taken of (e) Ψ and (f) Δ at 0.5 Hz during the thin-film growth. Surface topology of (g) STO substrate and (h) LMO thin-film taken ex situ by AFM. Growth conditions: PO2 = 30 mTorr, substrate temperature Ts = 700 °C.
Full SE spectral scans taken from 1.2 eV to 5.9 eV are shown at times (a) 100 s, (b) 500 s, and (c) 1090 s during the LMO film deposition.
The optical constants from 1.2 eV to 5.9 eV for the (a) LMO thin-film N 1(n,k) and (b) STO substrate N 2(n,k) obtained from the in situ SE spectra at the end of the growth period. (c) Real-time thickness of LMO thin-film during the growth as determined independently by RHEED and SE. The measurements are self-consistent and support the validity of the model used to extract the optical constants and thickness from the SE spectra.
The (a) dispersion ɛ1 and (b) absorption ɛ2 coefficients as obtained from applying Eqs. (4) and (5) to the SE optical constants extracted at 100 s, 300 s, and 1090 s.
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