Schematic models of the developed (a) XY and (b) Z scanners.
Sample holding mechanisms using (a) glue, (b) magnet, and (c) screw. (i) Schematic models. (ii) Frequency response calculated by FEA. (iii) Frequency response measured by AFM.
Vibration modes of the XY scanner calculated by FEA. (a) Mode 1 and (b) Mode 2 corresponding to Peaks 1 and 2 in Fig. 2 (ii), respectively.
Cantilever holding mechanisms using (a) glue, (b) plate spring, and (c) screw. (i) Schematic models. (ii) Frequency response calculated by FEA. (iii) Frequency response measured by an interferometer.
Vibration modes of the Z scanner calculated by FEA. Modes 1–4 correspond to Peaks 1–4 indicated in Fig. 4 (ii), respectively.
Schematic diagrams of the developed high-voltage amplifiers for the (a) Z and (b) X scanners.
Frequency response of the developed HVAs. (a) Amplitude curve. (b) Phase curve.
Output voltage spectral density distribution of the developed X and Z HVAs measured with and without a capacitive load.
Frequency response of the tip-sample distance feedback regulation measured with the developed scanners and HVAs. The measurement was performed in contact-mode AFM in liquid.
Contact-mode AFM images of mica in PBS solution obtained with the developed scanners and HVAs. The screw holding mechanism was used for both the sample and cantilever holders. Scan rate: 78.125 Hz. Imaging speed: 0.82 s/frame. Pixels: 128 × 64 pix. For (a)–(d), v t = 0.39, 0.59, 1.17, and 1.56 μm/s, f cr = 0.75, 1.13, 2.25, and 3 kHz, z pp = 3.93, 3.79, 3.38, and 3.29 pm, respectively.
Snapshots of 66 successive contact-mode AFM images of the calcite crystal growth process in water (see video in the supplementary material). 17 (a) 0 s. (b) 20 s. (c) 40 s. (d) 60 s. The screw holding mechanism was used for both the sample and cantilever holders. Scan size: 20 × 10 nm2. Scan rate: 100 Hz. Imaging speed: 2 s/frame. Pixel size: 200 × 200 pix. Tip velocity: 4 μm/s.
Specifications of the developed Z and XY scanners and HVAs.
Performance of the developed HVA and the commercially available ones.
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