(a) Exploded view of the parallel-plate flow chamber. (b) Picture showing front view of the flow chamber along with its setup.
Cross-sectional view of cell culture insert on either a 12 mm diameter microscope coverslip or a cell culture cup. Optical access was available from planview (xy-plane) through a 0.17 mm thick microscope coverslip. Note that the gap in between cell culture cup and stainless steel block is shown for clarity purposes. This image is not drawn to scale.
Carotid flow waveform generated by the pulsatile pump. Symbols correspond to a total of 12 time steps at which data were acquired. For each set of data collection, data were acquired at 4 different time steps and was repeated for a total of 3 sets.
Computed cell surface contours for measurements of steady flow over fixed cells, overlaid on the image of stained endothelial cells. Contour labels are in unit micrometers. Flow is left-to-right.
Three-dimensional rendering of cell surface topography for the cell surface contours shown in Fig. 4 .
Results of (a) wall shear stress and (b) wall pressure shown for the same region of interest as in Fig. 4 as line contours and superimposed on color contours of computed surface topography. Dashed lines in the wall pressure plot denote negative values.
Cross-sectional view in the x-direction (in reference to Fig. 5 ) with shear and pressure forces superimposed on cell surface to elucidate the contribution of both shear and pressure to total mechanical loading. Note that vector length for pressure forces are shown twice as large compared to shear and total surface forces for clarity purposes. Flow is left-to-right.
Results of pulsatile flow measurements at time step, t1 = 0.018 s in reference to flow waveform in Fig. 3 . (a) Original image of fixed and stained endothelial cells. (b) The computed cell surface topography in unit micrometers overlaid on cell image shown in dashed box in (a). (c) and (d) Line contours of wall shear stress and wall pressure, respectively, shown over color contours of computed cell topography. Flow is left-to-right. Note that scale bar below (d) is only valid for (b)–(d) only.
Comparison of minimum, maximum, maximum differential, and rms values for shear stress and pressure at three selected time steps for the pulsatile flow experiment.
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