(Top) Conceptual layout of a cylindrical implosion experiment. The liner is a cylindrical shell of beryllium with an inner diameter of 4 mm and a thickness of 0.9 mm. (Bottom) Static radiograph of the target assembly in experiment Z2424. The gold rod (1 mm outer diameter) appears dark in this image due to its high opacity, while the beryllium liner is faint.
Leapfrog PDV. Dashed boxes indicate modular PDV channels, each composed of a three-port circulator, a 90/10 splitter with retroreflector (RR), and an amplified receiver (D). External modifications create a conventional channel (1) and two frequency-shifted channels (2 and 3).
(Top) Characteristic velocity in a cylindrical implosion experiment. The active range of a conventional PDV measurement (channel 1) is indicated by the dashed blue box. Frequency-shifted measurements (channels 2 and 3) are indicated by the dashed green and red boxes. (Bottom) Characteristic beat frequencies obtained in a leapfrog PDV measurement. The blue, green, and red lines indicate channels 1, 2, and 3, respectively.
STFT images (1.01 ns Hamming window applied in 62.5 ps intervals) for experiment Z2424. The top image is the conventional channel, while the middle and bottom images are frequency shifted with 14.1 km/s and 28.5 km/s null velocities, respectively. Color indicates the strength of a particular time-frequency element relative to the strongest element in each image. Black lines indicate one-dimensional simulations based on B-dot (solid) and load current VISAR (dashed) measurements.
STFT images (1.01 ns Hamming window applied in 62.5 ps intervals) of Al liner implosions in Z2370 (top) and Z2408 (bottom). Black lines indicate one-dimensional simulations based on B-dot current measurements.
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