Schematic of the experimental setup. A mechanism for winding and rewinding adhesive tape is driven by two stepper motors and controlled by a roller with an optical encoder. X-ray detectors can be placed inside the vacuum at any position. A sputter source can be used to metal-coat adhesive tapes in situ.
Reproducibility of X-ray spectra obtained by consecutive experiments of the same tape roll. Integrated count rates remain at a fairly constant level (inset).
Pressure increase on rewinding a tape roll. First time unwinding (before experiments) leads to an increase of almost an order of magnitude. A series of 30 s experiments was performed and then the tape was rewound again. The dips result from pauses in between the measurements, in which confined air in the adhesive was pumped out. The tapes have a “memory” of the pressure in which they have been wound.
A series of spectra of a “tesa 4132” roll showing the dependence of total count rate and mean energy (vertical blue lines) on the pressure.
Spectra of the emitted X-ray photons in a series of measurements varying the unwinding speed of a “tesa 4102” tape roll at 1 × 10−3 mbar. Mean energy (vertical blue lines) increases with tape speed.
Total count rates of the emitted X-ray photons in dependence of unwinding speed of an adhesive tape roll.
Different types of adhesive tape rolls and the obtained X-ray spectra sampled into 1024 channels covering the whole energy range. All spectra were obtained at an initial pressure of 1 × 10−3 mbar and with 10 cm s−1 tape speed. Integral count rates for all types are shown in the inset. The highest count rate and mean energy was found for the “tesa 64250 mod” roll.
Angular dependence of the measured X-ray spectra of a “tesa 4102” roll at 1 × 10−3 mbar and 10 cm s−1 tape speed. Spectra are weighted by energy. Inset: mean energy vs. detector angle.
Experimental setup for the metalization of the adhesive tape by dc sputtering. The sputter source (top) and the blue-violet argon plasma (center) are visible. The ball-bearing, screws, and detector (not shown in this image) have been covered with aluminum foil to prevent contamination by sputtering.
Spectra before and after each sputter deposition cycle. For details see text.
(a) Spectra of the X-ray emission of a “3M Scotch” tape roll peeled for 30 s at 10 cm s−1 at a pressure of 2 × 10−2 mbar with and without a 3 μm titanium foil between peeling vertex and detector. The titanium K-edge is visible at 5 keV. (b) Spectrum with a 15 μm tantalum foil, calculated transmission, and the unattenuated intensity. Ta L2 and L3 absorption edges are visible at 10 keV and 11 keV, respectively.
Total count rates for a series of pressure dependent measurements with and without an NdFeB magnet.
X-ray spectra while varying the pressure with (black areas) and without (red areas) a NdFeB magnet in the vicinity of the peeling vertex of the tape.
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