Principle optical setup of the fiber-optic FTIR sensor system.
IR spectrum transmitted through the hollow delivery fibers. In the spectrum, the low transmission band is due to carbon dioxide absorption at ∼2400 cm−1.
(a) Typical FTIR spectrum of BSA using three consecutive trials. Amide bands are observed at 1650 cm−1 (amide I) and 1520 cm−1 (amide II). (b) IR spectrum of BSA at different concentrations (1%–0.0025%). (c) Qualitative assessment of BSA at different concentrations (0.5%, 0.05%, 0.005%, and 0.0025% which represent 9.056 × 1013, 9.056 × 1012, 9.056 × 1011, and 4.528 × 1011 molecules, respectively, in a 2 μl solution).
Typical controlled endotoxin at different concentrations extracted from E. coli.
Microscopic images with 15× magnification of endotoxin at different concentrations where endotoxin were not homogenously distributed.
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