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Wide-area scanner for high-speed atomic force microscopy
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10.1063/1.4803449
/content/aip/journal/rsi/84/5/10.1063/1.4803449
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/rsi/84/5/10.1063/1.4803449

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(a) Scheme of newly designed wide-area scanner for high-speed AFM. (b) Enlarged view of the leverage-based displacement magnification mechanism. Asterisks indicate the points that are 5 mm (1), 15 mm (2), and 23 mm (3) distant from the fulcrum. Displacements were measured at these points. (c) Displacements caused by the extension of two different piezoactuators (Piezo-1, blue line; Piezo-2, red line) measured at three different points along the lever indicated in (b). (d) Photograph of the wide-area scanner.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Effects of vibration damping on displacement of X-scanner. (a) Frequency spectra of mechanical response of the X-scanner (red line, amplitude; blue line, phase). (b) Driving signal of 28 Hz with a non-modified triangular wave form (black line) and corresponding displacement (red line). (c) Driving signal of 85 Hz with a non-modified triangular wave form (black line) and corresponding displacement (red line). (d) Driving signal of 85 Hz with a triangular wave form modified by inverse compensation (black line) and corresponding displacement (red line). (e) Driving signal of 256 Hz with a non-modified triangular wave (black line) and corresponding displacement (red line). (f) Driving signal of 256 Hz with a triangular wave form modified by the inversed compensation (black line) and corresponding displacement (red line). (g) Driving signal of 85 Hz with a rounded triangular wave form containing harmonics up to the ninth order (black line) and corresponding displacement. (h) Driving signal of 1 kHz obtained after modification by inverse compensation of a rounded triangular wave form containing harmonics up to the ninth order (black line) and corresponding displacement (red line).

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Hysteresis of X-scanner and its compensation. (a) Hysteresis curves for two different ranges (blue line, 24 m; red line, 40 m). (b) Hysteresis curves normalized with regard to both displacement and voltage. Black line shows a fitting curve with fourth-order polynomials. (c) Driving signal of 85 Hz with a triangular wave form modified by open-loop compensation for hysteresis (black line) and corresponding displacement (red line). Here, hysteresis compensation was applied to a triangular wave form modified by inverse compensation. (d) AFM image of a test grating sample with a pitch of 10 m obtained without hysteresis compensation (imaging rate, 7 s/frame; pixels, 256 × 256). (e) AFM image of the same grating sample obtained using hysteresis compensation (imaging rate, 7 s/frame; pixels, 256 × 256). (f) AFM image of the same grating sample obtained using hysteresis compensation (imaging rate, 3 s/frame; pixels, 256 × 256).

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Elimination of interference between X- and Y-scanner displacements. (a) Sample stage displacement in the Y-direction as a function of X-scanner displacement. Displacement ranges of X-scanner are 5 m (green line) and 30 m (red line). Yellow and black lines represent displacements in the Y direction when interference compensation was applied for X-scanner displacements of 5 m and 30 m, respectively. (b) Sample stage displacement in the X-direction as a function of Y-scanner displacement. Displacement ranges of Y-scanner are 5 m (green line) and 30 m (red line). Yellow and black lines represent displacements in the X direction when interference compensation was applied for Y-scanner displacements of 5 m and 30 m, respectively. (c) AFM image of a test grating sample with a pitch of 10 m obtained without interference compensation (scan range, 33 × 33 m; imaging rate, 7 s/frame; pixels, 256 × 256). The square grids are distorted in a rhombic shape. (d) AFM image of the same sample obtained using interference compensation (imaging rate, 7 s/frame; pixels, 256 × 256). (e) Enlarged AFM image of the sample obtained without interference compensation (scan range, 15 × 15 m; imaging rate, 7 s/frame; pixels, 256 × 256). (f) Enlarged AFM image of the sample obtained using interference compensation (scan range, 15 × 15 m; imaging rate, 7 s/frame; pixels, 256 × 256).

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Tracing accuracy of feedback Z-scanning by the wide-area scanner. (a) Frequency response of the Z-scanner (gain, red lines; phase, blue lines) obtained with (dotted lines) and without (solid lines) the use of active Q-control damping. (b) Cross sections of topographic AFM images (256 × 256 pixels) of a grating sample acquired at different imaging rates (top, 3 s/frame; middle, 10 s/frame; bottom, 20 s/frame). (c) Histograms of topographic height measured for the top surface of the grating sample. The average heights measured are 276 nm (top, 3 s/frame), 279 nm (middle, 10 s/frame), and 276 nm (bottom, 20 s/frame). (d) Cross sections of the error-signal images that appeared when the grating sample was imaged at different imaging rates.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

HS-AFM imaging of using the wide-area scanner. (a) Topographic image of in a culture medium solution before the addition of lysozyme. Scan range, 20 × 20 m; imaging rate, 15 s/frame; pixels, 200 × 200. (b) Successive images of bacteriolysis process of subjected to lysozyme. Lysozyme was injected at = 240 s. Scan range, 5 × 5 m; imaging rate, 20 s/frame; pixels, 256 × 256 (enhanced online). [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4803449.1]doi: 10.1063/1.4803449.1.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Time course of roughness change of the outer surface of subjected to lysozyme. (a) Time course of root mean square (RMS) roughness. Lysozyme was injected at = 32 s. Solid line shows the result of best fitting (time constant, = 36.8 s) by a single exponential function for the time course between = 112 s and = 300 s. (b) Corresponding AFM images of the outer surface of at different time lapses. Values of RMS roughness were calculated for the area encircled by the white broken line shown in the image at = 86 s (enhanced online). [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4803449.2]doi: 10.1063/1.4803449.2.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

HS-AFM imaging of dynamic processes occurring in HeLa cells. (a) Topographic image of HeLa cell at an edge region before the addition of cytocharasin D. Thin black lines indicate flow of small objects. Imaging rate, 5 s/frame; pixels, 200 × 200. (b) Topographic image of HeLa cell at an edge region after the addition of cytocharasin D. Black dots show that no flow is occurring. Scan range, 5 × 5 m; imaging rate, 5 s/frame; pixels, 200 × 200. (c) Successive images showing the dynamic process of endocytosis. HeLa cells were transfected by mEGFP-Rab5(Q79L)-CAAX. The imaging was performed 24 h after transfection. Scan range, 5 × 5 m; imaging rate, 5 s/frame; pixels, 200 × 200. (d) Frequencies of pit appearance in HeLa cells transfected by mEGFP, mEGFP-Rab5(Q79L), and mEGFP-Rab5(Q79L)-CAAX (enhanced online). [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4803449.3] [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4803449.4] [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4803449.5]doi: 10.1063/1.4803449.3.

doi: 10.1063/1.4803449.4.

doi: 10.1063/1.4803449.5.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Narrow-area imaging by HS-AFM equipped with the wide-area scanner and effect of the gain-variable piezodriver on imaging. (a)–(d) HS-AFM images of two actin filaments aligned in parallel obtained with different piezodriver gains [(a) ×1; (b) ×2; (c) ×5; (d) ×10]. Scan range, 200 × 100 nm; imaging rate, 0.15 s/frame; pixels, 120 × 60. (e) and (f) AFM images of outer surface of before (e) and after (f) injection of lysozyme. Scan range, 500 × 500 nm; imaging rate, 2 s/frame; pixels, 256 × 256.

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2013-05-03
2014-04-20
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Wide-area scanner for high-speed atomic force microscopy
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/rsi/84/5/10.1063/1.4803449
10.1063/1.4803449
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