^{1}, E. M. Dufresne

^{1}, M. Borland

^{1}, M. A. Beno

^{1}, L. Young

^{1}, K.-J. Kim

^{1}and P. G. Evans

^{2}

### Abstract

The short pulse x-ray imaging and microscopy beamline is one of the two x-ray beamlines that will take full advantage of the short pulse x-ray source in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) upgrade. A horizontally diffracting double crystal monochromator which includes a sagittally focusing second crystal will collect most of the photons generated when the chirped electron beam traverses the undulator. A Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror system after the monochromator will deliver to the sample a beam which has an approximately linear correlation between time and vertical beam angle. The correlation at the sample position has a slope of 0.052 ps/μrad extending over an angular range of 800 μrad for a cavity deflection voltage of 2 MV. The expected time resolution of the whole system is 2.6 ps. The total flux expected at the sample position at 10 keV with a 0.9 eV energy resolution is 5.7 × 1012 photons/s at a spot having horizontal and vertical full width at half maximum of 33 μm horizontal by 14 μm vertical. This new beamline will enable novel time-dispersed diffraction experiments on small samples using the full repetition rate of the APS.

The Advanced Photon Source, an Office of Science User Facility operated for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science by Argonne National Laboratory, was supported by the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. We thank Mark Erdmann and Joshua Downey for their contribution to the beamline layout, and Louis Emery and Sarvjit Shastri for helpful discussions. P.E. acknowledges support from the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under award DE-FG02-10ER46147.

I. INTRODUCTION

II. SOURCE

III. OPTICAL LAYOUT

IV. RAY TRACINGS

V. CONCLUSION

### Key Topics

- Photons
- 24.0
- X-ray optics
- 16.0
- X-ray diffraction
- 12.0
- X-ray imaging
- 11.0
- Monochromators
- 10.0

##### G01J3/12

##### H01L31/115

##### H04N5/30

##### H04N5/32

##### H05G

## Figures

Total flux emitted in the central cone by the 2.1 m long revolver undulator in the first (solid line) and third harmonic (dashed line) when using the 3 cm period device and emitted in the first harmonic (dotted-dashed line) by the 2.7 cm device. The current in the storage ring is 150 mA.

Total flux emitted in the central cone by the 2.1 m long revolver undulator in the first (solid line) and third harmonic (dashed line) when using the 3 cm period device and emitted in the first harmonic (dotted-dashed line) by the 2.7 cm device. The current in the storage ring is 150 mA.

Log (base 10) of the number of rays as a function of time and vertical angle when accepting the full horizontal fan (see text).

Log (base 10) of the number of rays as a function of time and vertical angle when accepting the full horizontal fan (see text).

Log (base 10) of number of rays as a function of time and vertical angle when accepting 50 μrad horizontally.

Log (base 10) of number of rays as a function of time and vertical angle when accepting 50 μrad horizontally.

SD of the vertical size of the electron distribution (○) and its convolution with the photon beam (△: central cone; ×: SH late pulse; □: SH early pulse) as a function of the longitudinal distance. Zero meter corresponds to the center of the undulator.

SD of the vertical size of the electron distribution (○) and its convolution with the photon beam (△: central cone; ×: SH late pulse; □: SH early pulse) as a function of the longitudinal distance. Zero meter corresponds to the center of the undulator.

Log (base 10) of the number of rays as a function of time and vertical position at 0.76 m downstream from the center of the undulator; i.e., where the radiation has its vertical waist.

Log (base 10) of the number of rays as a function of time and vertical position at 0.76 m downstream from the center of the undulator; i.e., where the radiation has its vertical waist.

Optical layout of the SPXIM beamline.

Optical layout of the SPXIM beamline.

Energy resolution of a flat Si⟨220⟩ crystal followed by the sagittally bent crystal (red line); two flats (green circles). Right axis: (for trace labeled pPol2) p reflectivity of two flat ⟨220⟩ Si with collimated light.

Energy resolution of a flat Si⟨220⟩ crystal followed by the sagittally bent crystal (red line); two flats (green circles). Right axis: (for trace labeled pPol2) p reflectivity of two flat ⟨220⟩ Si with collimated light.

Flux density (scale in units of photons/s/μm2) at the slit plane when using the Si⟨220⟩ crystals. The caption above the figure gives the total flux (in units of photons/s) as well as the standard deviations of the beam size along the horizontal and vertical directions.

Flux density (scale in units of photons/s/μm2) at the slit plane when using the Si⟨220⟩ crystals. The caption above the figure gives the total flux (in units of photons/s) as well as the standard deviations of the beam size along the horizontal and vertical directions.

Log (base 10) of the intensity at the sample position as a function of time and vertical angle. Upper trace (centered around 0 ps): With fully opened vertical slit; lower trace (shifted by −70 ps to make it visible in the figure) after a 25 μm slit.

Log (base 10) of the intensity at the sample position as a function of time and vertical angle. Upper trace (centered around 0 ps): With fully opened vertical slit; lower trace (shifted by −70 ps to make it visible in the figure) after a 25 μm slit.

Flux density (scale in units of photons/s/μm2) at the sample position at the energy resolution of the Si⟨220⟩ DCM. The caption above the figure as in Fig. 8 .

Flux density (scale in units of photons/s/μm2) at the sample position at the energy resolution of the Si⟨220⟩ DCM. The caption above the figure as in Fig. 8 .

## Tables

Position of the optical elements relative to the straight section center.

Position of the optical elements relative to the straight section center.

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