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Novel high-temperature and pressure-compatible ultrasonic levitator apparatus coupled to Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectrometers
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10.1063/1.4804647
/content/aip/journal/rsi/84/5/10.1063/1.4804647
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/rsi/84/5/10.1063/1.4804647

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Schematic diagram of the levitator (A–F), second stage optics (G), and process chamber. Ultrasonic sound waves are generated by the piezoelectric transducer (E). Owing to multiple reflections between the transducer and the concave reflector (D), a standing wave is generated. A micrometer (A) allows the distance between the front plate of the transducer and the reflector to be adjusted to an integral number of half wavelengths. The pressure amplitude of the standing wave is monitored by connecting the output of the piezoelectric sensor (C) via connector (B) to an oscilloscope. The RF power to the transducer is input via connector F. For clarity, the supports for the levitator and second stage optics are not shown.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Top view of the levitator apparatus displaying the ultrasonic levitator, process chamber, carbon dioxide laser, Raman spectrometer, FTIR spectrometer, IR detector, and the first stage optics. The inset shows the levitator including the supports in more detail.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Alteration in the Raman spectrum when a grain of gypsum (CaSO·2HO) levitated in anhydrous nitrogen is dehydrated to anhydrite (CaSO) by irradiation from a CO laser. The assignments of the ν(SO) and ν(HO) vibrational modes for the gypsum peaks are shown. The corresponding ν(SO) and ν(SO) vibrational modes in anhydrite are observed at slightly higher Raman shifts (see text for details).

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Possible reaction pathways for linking two L-cysteine molecules when heated.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Raman spectrum of a levitated L-cysteine sample before and after irradiation by the CO laser (top) compared with a reference D-cystine Raman spectrum (bottom). Following irradiation, a new peak appears due to the ν(S–S) stretch mode, and the ν(C–C) and ν(C–S) stretch mode peaks move to higher Raman shifts (see top figure). The unirradiated cysteine peak assignments are a(CCN), b(CO), c(CH), d(CO), e(CC), f(SH), g(NH), and h(NH). The label 1 refers to a peak not clearly present in either the unirradiated L-cysteine or cystine (see text for details). The cystine peak assignments shown are from Ref. .

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Raman spectrum of a levitated L-cysteine sample in the 1650–1080 cm range before (top spectrum) and after irradiation (bottom spectrum) by the CO laser. The unirradiated cysteine peak assignments, where available, are a(CH), b(CH), c(CH), d(CH), e(NH), f(CO), g(CH), h(NH), i(NH), and j(CO). For illustration purposes, the unirradiated spectrum is shown displaced vertically upwards.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Raman spectrum showing the E and A modes of grain of graphite levitated in oxygen.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

FTIR spectrum of a 38 m thick, levitated polystyrene sheet (top) compared to standard spectrum from the same material (bottom). The assignments of selected, prominent vibrational modes are shown (see text for details).

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

FTIR spectrum of a levitated polyethylene sheet (top) compared to standard spectrum from the same material (bottom). The assignments of the vibrational modes are shown (see the text for details).

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

FTIR spectrum of levitated expanded polystyrene (top) compared to a standard polystyrene spectrum (bottom). The assignments of selected, prominent vibrational modes are shown (see text for details).

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Temperature, , of a 1 mm diameter gypsum particle levitated in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure as a function of the CO laser power.

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/content/aip/journal/rsi/84/5/10.1063/1.4804647
2013-05-29
2014-04-16
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Novel high-temperature and pressure-compatible ultrasonic levitator apparatus coupled to Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectrometers
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/rsi/84/5/10.1063/1.4804647
10.1063/1.4804647
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