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Development of an (e,2e) electron momentum spectroscopy apparatus using an ultrashort pulsed electron gun
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Symmetric noncoplanar geometry for the study of the binary (,2) reaction.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(a) FWHM of the electron packet's kinetic energy distribution (centered at 1.2 keV) and (b) FWHM of the electron pulse duration vs propagation path length and their dependence on the number of electrons, calculated by using the mean field model. See text for details.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Schematic of a time-resolved electron momentum spectroscopy apparatus, consisting of a femtosecond laser system, vacuum chambers, a pulsed electron gun, a target beam source, an EMS spectrometer, and a data gathering system. Abbreviations are: OPA for optical parametric amplifier, THG for third harmonic generator, BBO for -barium borate, BS for beam splitter, DM for dichroic mirror, L for lens, EG for electron gun, BC for beam catcher.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Pulsed electron gun schematic, consisting of a back-illuminated photocathode, a copper electroformed mesh, and a collimating aperture. See text for details.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Cross section of a multichannel EMS spectrometer developed in this work. (1) Electron gun cathode, (2) multi-capillary beam source (or single tube gas nozzle), (3) two sets of four apertures in series, (4) deflector system, (5) a pair of decelerating electrostatic lenses, (6) Faraday cup, (7) Herzog plates, (8) spherical analyzer, (9) exit aperture, (10) electroformed mesh, (11) HEX120 detector.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Schematic diagram of a signal processing electronics for time-resolved EMS experiments, representing microchannel plates (MCPs), delay lines (DLs), a constant fraction discriminator (CFD), a multi-vibrator (MV), a time-to-digital converter (TDC). See text for further details.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(a) Contour plot of an image of elastically scattered electrons, measured as a function of the incident electron energy from 1180 to 1260 eV in intervals of 20 eV. The solid circle represents the active area of the MCP and broken circle is for 1200 eV electrons. (b) Energy spectrum of the elastically scattered electrons measured at the beam intensity of 10 pA. (c) FWHM of elastic peak vs electron beam intensity. See text for details.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

(a) Kinetic energy distributions of elastically scattered electrons measured with and without laser irradiation and (b) Time delay dependence of the sum of the square of their intensity differences.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Δ-angle integrated binding energy spectrum of Ne.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Comparison of momentum profiles for the Ne (a) 2 and (b) 2 orbitals between experiment and theory. See text for details.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Development of an (e,2e) electron momentum spectroscopy apparatus using an ultrashort pulsed electron gun