Schematic drawing of the CAHT2 microscope showing the three chambers and the location of the furnace.
The open CAHT2. The probe is located on the probe holder. The furnace with the sample on top is located in the sample chamber. When the microscope is closed, the probe is lowered to the sample.
The sample chamber with the furnace module mounted. A: sample, B: furnace, C: radiation shield, D: fixation pins, E: electrical connections to outside, F: electrical connection to sample, G: humidity sensor, H: Macor® disc.
Surface images of a polished LSM-YSZ sample measured at 750 °C, (a) conductance image, (b) topography image, (c) conductance image of the area marked in (a) with a higher magnification. In the conductance images, blue and yellow areas correspond to YSZ and LSM, respectively.
Conductance of (a) NiO-YSZ surface in N2 before reduction. The conductance of YSZ is low (blue) compared to NiO (green-yellow). (b) In situ initial surface reduction of the NiO-YSZ composite. The acquisition of the image takes around 9 min and the y-axis is thus also a time axis. The arrow indicates the introduction of hydrogen. Subsequently, the conductance decreases (green to blue) and finally when Ni formation starts the conductance increases (green islands).
Image of the sample with a probe located on a microelectrode with a diameter of 100 μm. The red areas are reflexes from the laser beam.
(a) Impedance spectra of differently sized LSM microelectrodes on a YSZ substrate measured at 850 °C in pure oxygen. (b) Double-logarithmic plot of the LSM electrode polarization resistance, Rp, versus the microelectrode diameter d.
Topography images on the polished surface of a sintered YSZ pellet. Tapping mode at (a) room temperature, (b) 850 °C, (c) 850 °C after 1 h of scanning. (d) shows for comparison contact mode at 850 °C.
Scanning tunneling spectroscopy on LSM (a) at 25 °C and (b) at 600 °C in air.
YSZ and LSC measured at 500 °C. (a) Surface potential (raw data) and (b) topography.
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