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A high-flux high-order harmonic source
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http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/rsi/84/7/10.1063/1.4812266
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FIG. 1.

Phase matching pressure in Ar as a function of ionization degree for different harmonic orders, q, and different focus geometries , blue, and , red. The central wavelength is 800 nm and the generation cell is placed at the focus of the fundamental beam.

Image of FIG. 2.

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FIG. 2.

Scaling of the phase matching pressure and the required laser pulse energy with focal length (or ) for different ionization levels in argon. The corresponding minimum laser pulse energy required is shown in red. For the simulations, the following parameters were used: beam diameter before focusing: = 10 mm, gas cell position: at the focus, central wavelength of 800 nm, harmonic order = 21. The required pulse energy was calculated assuming a peak intensity of 1.5 × 10 W/cm and a pulse length of 45 fs.

Image of FIG. 3.

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FIG. 3.

HHG setup in the 4 m focusing configuration; L - focusing lens, I - iris, M - folding mirrors, PGC - pulsed gas cell, F - aluminum filters, RM - rotating mirror, XS - XUV spectrometer, VS - VUV spectrometer, and XCCD - XUV CCD camera.

Image of FIG. 4.

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FIG. 4.

High-order harmonic spectra in argon (a) and neon (b) gas. The pulse energy per individual harmonics, shown as dots, was obtained by combining total energy measurements with the spectral response from the XUV spectrometer.

Image of FIG. 5.

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FIG. 5.

Intensity of the 21st harmonic generated in argon as a function of driving laser energy and generation gas pressure. The measurements were carried out for a gas cell placed at the laser focus for three iris sizes: (a) ϕ = 22 mm, (b) ϕ = 24 mm, and (c) ϕ = 32 mm. The values of a harmonic intensity between the measured points, shown as black dots, were interpolated.

Image of FIG. 6.

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FIG. 6.

(a) Spatial profile of the harmonic beam generated in Ar by focusing fundamental radiation with 2 m focal length lens into a 10 mm long cell, recorded with an x-ray CCD camera. The back-panel shows the cross-section of the beam (gray, dotted line), and a fitted intensity distribution (blue, dashed line), (b) Diffraction pattern created in a double-slit experiment, experimental data (blue, solid line), and fitted intensity distribution (red, dashed line).

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/content/aip/journal/rsi/84/7/10.1063/1.4812266
2013-07-09
2014-04-17

Abstract

We develop and implement an experimental strategy for the generation of high-energy high-order harmonics (HHG) in gases for studies of nonlinear processes in the soft x-ray region. We generate high-order harmonics by focusing a high energy Ti:Sapphire laser into a gas cell filled with argon or neon. The energy per pulse is optimized by an automated control of the multiple parameters that influence the generation process. This optimization procedure allows us to obtain energies per pulse and harmonic order as high as 200 nJ in argon and 20 nJ in neon, with good spatial properties, using a loose focusing geometry ( ) and a 20 mm long medium. We also theoretically examine the macroscopic conditions for absorption-limited conversion efficiency and optimization of the HHG pulse energy for high-energy laser systems.

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Scitation: A high-flux high-order harmonic source
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/rsi/84/7/10.1063/1.4812266
10.1063/1.4812266
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