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Performance of a hybrid pyroelectric LiNbO3 and TiO2 nanotubes X-ray source
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10.1063/1.4812650
/content/aip/journal/rsi/84/7/10.1063/1.4812650
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/rsi/84/7/10.1063/1.4812650

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

A drawing illustrating electric field amplification on nanotube tips.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Representative SEM images of clustered TiO nanotube arrays used to form LiNbO/TiO structure (a), and magnified area of the image (b).

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Experimental setup used to produce and detect X-ray emission using LiNbO/TiO pyroelectric based X-ray source. TC in this figure stands for “thermocouple.” Arrows illustrate LiNbO/TiO bombardment by accelerated electrons and producing X-ray emission during heating phase.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

X-ray emission spectra from 1 cm long hybrid LiNbO/TiO nanotube and pure LiNbO structures. The spectra were detected during heating from room temperature to 150 °C.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

X-ray emission spectra from 2 cm long hybrid LiNbO/TiO nanotube and pure LiNbO structures. The spectra were detected during heating from room temperature to 150 °C.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

X-ray emission flux as a function of temperature; the flux is determined as the difference between the total counts of neighboring temperatures separated by 2 °C. The measurements were performed for both hybrid LiNbO/TiO and pure LiNbO structures.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

SEM images of the TiO nanotube clusters before (a), and after 10 (b) and 20 (c) thermal cycles. Comparison of these images shows eroding of TiO nanotube tips during X-ray source operation.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Dependence of endpoint energy for hybrid LiNbO/TiO structures on number of thermal cycles. Results corresponding to both 1 cm and 2 cm long crystals are presented.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

A summary of X-ray emissions maximum energy, peak energy, and total counts of from 1 cm and 2 cm long LiNbTiO/TiO and LiNbTiO sources extracted from Figures 4–7 .

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/content/aip/journal/rsi/84/7/10.1063/1.4812650
2013-07-10
2014-04-17
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Performance of a hybrid pyroelectric LiNbO3 and TiO2 nanotubes X-ray source
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/rsi/84/7/10.1063/1.4812650
10.1063/1.4812650
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