A drawing illustrating electric field amplification on nanotube tips.
Representative SEM images of clustered TiO2 nanotube arrays used to form LiNbO3/TiO2 structure (a), and magnified area of the image (b).
Experimental setup used to produce and detect X-ray emission using LiNbO3/TiO2 pyroelectric based X-ray source. TC in this figure stands for “thermocouple.” Arrows illustrate LiNbO3/TiO2 bombardment by accelerated electrons and producing X-ray emission during heating phase.
X-ray emission spectra from 1 cm long hybrid LiNbO3/TiO2 nanotube and pure LiNbO3 structures. The spectra were detected during heating from room temperature to 150 °C.
X-ray emission spectra from 2 cm long hybrid LiNbO3/TiO2 nanotube and pure LiNbO3 structures. The spectra were detected during heating from room temperature to 150 °C.
X-ray emission flux as a function of temperature; the flux is determined as the difference between the total counts of neighboring temperatures separated by 2 °C. The measurements were performed for both hybrid LiNbO3/TiO2 and pure LiNbO3 structures.
SEM images of the TiO2 nanotube clusters before (a), and after 10 (b) and 20 (c) thermal cycles. Comparison of these images shows eroding of TiO2 nanotube tips during X-ray source operation.
Dependence of endpoint energy for hybrid LiNbO3/TiO2 structures on number of thermal cycles. Results corresponding to both 1 cm and 2 cm long crystals are presented.
A summary of X-ray emissions maximum energy, peak energy, and total counts of from 1 cm and 2 cm long LiNbTiO3/TiO2 and LiNbTiO3 sources extracted from Figures 4–7 .
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