Experimental setup for Raman diagnostics. For details, see text.
Cross-section of the in situ Raman cell for diagnostics of lithium-ion batteries.
In situ Raman spectra of a LiCoO2 composite cathode recorded in measurement modes (A) and (B) using the same experimental conditions.
(a)–(d) Photographs of the assemblage of the in situ Raman cell.
In situ Raman spectroscopy during electrochemical cycling. (a) Cyclic voltammograms of the first four cycles. (b) Corresponding in situ Raman spectra recorded at the same degree of intercalation (x = 0.5). Grey markers display the position of phonon bands of the active material. Subscripts “extr” and “ins” indicate Li extraction and insertion, respectively. For details, see text.
In situ Raman spectra of a Li1−x CoO2 cathode mix upon galvanostatic cycling. The spectra were offset for clarity. Grey markers display the position of the active material phonon bands. For details, see text.
In situ Raman raw data of a Li1−x CoO2 cathode mix upon galvanostatic cycling recorded during one complete cycle (19 spectra). The inset shows the corresponding spectra of the high-frequency region. Asterisks mark the positions of the solvent signals. For details, see text.
Comparison of in situ Raman data from this work with ex situ data from the literature. 6
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