The proton-induced nuclear reaction cross section in copper for different reaction types. 16
Decay curves of four activated copper foils of the stack. The first dashed-dotted line denotes the first copper layer, the dashed line the second, the dotted line the third, and the continuous line the fourth layer.
Schematic of a stack of alternating layers of RCF and copper foils. Below is the autoradiography of activated copper foils using IPs. The energies mean the minimum incidence energies of protons which are necessary for proton induced nuclear reactions in each copper layer.
Gamma-ray decay spectrum after proton-induced activation of the copper foils. The protons were produced by a PHELIX shot. The number of protons was 1013 and the maximum energy of the protons was 30 MeV. The upper panel (a) shows the gamma decay spectrum after a measure time of 20 h. (b) shows the spectrum after 20 min according to the time in which the autoradiography is performed. The lower panel (c) denotes the background spectrum of the used high purity germanium detector after 20 h.
PSL value as a function of the proton induced nuclear reaction yield. The slope of the line of best fit (dashed line) denotes the efficiency of the IP. Used IP type: MM 3.0 without protecting layer from AGFA.
Schematic of the stack of alternating copper foils and RCF. Copper foils are used with different thicknesses (50, 130, 260, and 390 μm). RCFs are used with different sensitivities (MD is more sensitive regarding the protons).
Spatial distribution of protons according to the energy given by each copper layer. The color gradient indicates low particle number (blue) up to high particle number (yellow).
Nuclear activations per copper foil. The red dots are reaction yields obtained from autoradiography of copper foils. The blue boxes show the calculated reaction yields using the exponential fit (see text). The steps at foil numbers 4 and 8 result from the different thicknesses (50, 130, and 260 μm) of foils within the stack.
Comparison of both proton spectra obtained from NAIS and RIS.
The most proton-induced nuclear reactions with copper in the natural abundance. 16 E th is the nuclear reaction threshold. σmax means the maximum reaction cross section at the energy E(σmax).
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