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Polarizer design for millimeter-wave plasma diagnostics
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10.1063/1.4816724
/content/aip/journal/rsi/84/8/10.1063/1.4816724
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/rsi/84/8/10.1063/1.4816724

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Sapphire is a birefringent material and can be used for polarization purposes. The inherent optical axis lies within the window plane (a-cut). α symbolizes the phase shift between E and E of . α = ψ, if ϕ = 0 and the electric field components E and E of are in phase. The dashed arrows depict the principal axes and the local coordinate system of the window if it is rotated around the z-axis by the angle Φ.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Staggered HDPE plates can serve as birefringent window and be used for polarization purposes. α symbolizes the phase shift between E and E of . The bi-directional arrows indicate the grooved section of the material. The center section between the bi-directional arrows does not contribute to polarization effects.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Photos of the grooved HDPE window (left) and the sapphire window with anti-reflection coatings mounted in an optical holder (right). The diameter of the HDPE window is 90 mm, and the diameter of the sapphire window is 25 mm.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

A linearly polarized (x-direction) microwave beam (98 GHz) with a beam waist of 28 mm was focussed by means of a focusing mirror to a beam waist of 7.8 mm. A two-channel heterodyne detector was used to measure the electric field components E and E and the phase shift, α, in between. Test windows can be placed at A and B and rotated around the z-axis.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Measurement of the electric field E (triangles), E (diamonds), and the phase, α, between E and E (circles). The symbols represent the measurements, and the solid lines show the calculation. The best fit between measurements and calculations was found for ψ = 77.5° in the calculation.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Measurement of the electric field E (triangles), E (diamonds), and the phase, α, between E and E (circles). The symbols represent the measurements, and the solid lines show the calculation. The best fit between measurements and calculations was found for ψ = 87° in the calculation.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Transmission of the sapphire window for o-mode (black) and x-mode (grey) with suprasil windows as anti-reflection layer. The transmission in the wavelength range of interest (100–110 GHz) is calculated to be better than 99%. Losses in the sapphire are not considered in this calculation.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Calculation of the transmission of the wave energy of the o-mode (black) and x-mode (grey), when the HDPE window is designed as a λ/4 plate. Losses in the HDPE are not considered in this calculation.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Calculation of the transmission of the wave energy of the o-mode (black) and x-mode (grey), when the HDPE window is designed for ψ = 100° between the ordinary and extraordinary mode. Losses in the HDPE are not considered in this calculation.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Refractive indices of sapphire, suprasil, and HDPE at room temperature. Here, tan(δ) is the ratio of the imaginary and the real part of the dielectric susceptibility.

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/content/aip/journal/rsi/84/8/10.1063/1.4816724
2013-08-01
2014-04-21
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Polarizer design for millimeter-wave plasma diagnostics
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/rsi/84/8/10.1063/1.4816724
10.1063/1.4816724
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