Schematic of typical charge amplifier (top) adapted from Ref. 9 and schematic of a modified VQV feedback circuit (bottom).
Amplifier loop phase margin versus inductance (L c ) and resistance (R c ) of the series load impedance shown for the VQ amplifier (top) and the VQV amplifier (bottom).
Amplifier loop cross-over frequency versus inductance (L c ) and resistance (R c ) of the series load impedance shown for the VQ amplifier (top) and the VQV amplifier (bottom).
Block diagram showing the charge amplifier, piezoelectric device, and the hybrid hysteresis compensation algorithm.
Amplifier control block diagram.
Amplifier's loop shaping design showing the open-loop amplifier (OL), the feedback circuit (F), the loop transmission (LT), and the closed-loop (CL) frequency responses.
Experimental voltage-charge hysteresis of our piezo actuator and the fitted Maxwell's slip model.
Plot of the piezoelectric actuator's extension versus 10 cycles of the 10 Hz 0–80 V sinusoidal reference signal, which is given by Eq. (5) , is shown for the power amplifier's control mode set to voltage (top), charge (middle), and charge with hybrid hysteresis compensation (bottom).
Circuit element values for the circuits shown in Fig. 1 .
Stiffness and force limit values for modeling the hysteresis between the voltage and charge of our piezoelectric actuator.
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