Schematic of the strip focusing diode: potential electrode (1), grounded electrode (2), Faraday cup (3), Rogowski coil (4), waveforms of accelerating voltage (5), total current in the diode (6), and ion current density (7).
Schematic of the acoustic diagnostic for intense ion beams: 1-–strip target, 2-–PZT, and 3-–matching cones (to reduce reflections).
Waveforms of the signal measured by PZT: Fig. 3(b) is zoomed in illustration of the PZT signal shown in Fig. 3(a).
Thermal imprint of the beam on the target (a) placed behind the strip and the cross sectional distribution of the beam energy density (b) in vertical (1) and horizontal (2) cross sections. Line 3—Background temperature on the target before shot.
The calibration dependence of the PZT signal amplitude on the ion energy density.
The temperature distribution in copper target irradiated with C + ions at different times after interception with the beam.
Shot-to-shot variation in the energy density for 35 shots with a 120 second time interval between shots (a), with a 10 s interval using acoustic diagnostics (b).
Typical signal recorded from PZT during calibration. The ball was dropped from various drop heights of 12 mm (1), 50 mm (2), and 80 mm (3).
The dependence of magnitude of the PZT signal on the ion energy density of 2.1 J/cm2 (1), 1.0 J/cm2 (2), 0.55 J/cm2 (3), and 0.25 J/cm2 (4).
The comparison of the form of PZT signal (2) with that of the energy density distribution over the cross section (1) measured using infrared imaging diagnostics.
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