Skip to main content
banner image
No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.
1. G. M. Harry (for the LIGO Scientific Collaboration), “Advanced LIGO: the next generation of gravitational wave detectors,” Classical Quantum Gravity 27, 084006 (2010).
2. B. P. Abbott et al., “LIGO: The laser interferometer gravitational-wave observatory,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 72, 076901 (2009).
3. F. J. Raab, “Overview of LIGO instrumentation,” Proc. SPIE 5500, 1124 (2004).
4. S. M. Aston et al., “Update on quadruple suspension design for Advanced LIGO,” Classical Quantum Gravity 29, 235004 (2012).
5. A. Heptonstall et al., “Invited Article: CO2 laser production of fused silica fibres for use in interferometric gravitational wave detector mirror suspensions,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 01130110113019 (2011).
6. A. V. Cumming et al., “Design and development of the advanced LIGO monolithic fused silica suspension,” Classical Quantum Gravity 29, 035003 (2012).
7. N. A. Lockerbie, K. V. Tokmakov, and K. A. Strain, “A source of illumination for low-noise ‘Violin Mode’ shadow sensors, intended for use in interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. (to be published).
8. N. A. Lockerbie and K. V. A. Tokmakov, “Violin-Mode’ shadow sensor for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. (to be published).
9. N. A. Lockerbie, L. Carbone, B. Shapiro, K. V. Tokmakov, A. Bell, and K. A. StrainFirst results from the ‘Violin-Mode’ tests on an advanced LIGO suspension at MIT,”Classical Quantum Gravity 28, 245001 (2011).
10. L. Carbone et al., “Sensors and actuators for the Advanced LIGO mirror suspensions,” Classical Quantum Gravity 29(11), 115005 (2012).
11. A. V. Dmitriev, S. D. Mescheriakov,K. V. Tokmakov, and V. P. Mitrofanov, “Controllable damping of high-Q violin modes in fused silica suspension fibers,” Classical Quantum Gravity 27, 025009 (2010).
12. G. Brisebois, Linear Technology Design Note DN399: Low Noise Amplifiers for Small and Large Area Photodiodes, 2008, see
13. M. Stitt and W. Meinel, “OPT201 Photodiode-Amplifier Rejects Ambient Light,” Burr-Brown IC Applications Handbook (1993), p. 379.
14. M. Johnson, Photodetection and Measurement (McGraw-Hill, 2003), p. 146.
15.See for Hamamatsu S2551 photodiodes.
16. N. A. Lockerbie and K. V. Tokmakov, “Quasi-static displacement calibration system for a ‘Violin-Mode’ shadow-sensor intended for gravitational wave detector suspensions,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 105003 (2014).
17. N. A. Lockerbie and K. V. Tokmakov, A modulated Near InfraRed gain calibration system for a ‘Violin-Mode’ transimpedance amplifier, intended for advanced LIGO suspensions (TBA) LIGO-G1401275-v1, available at
18.See for Finesse Voltage Regulator Noise! (Wenzel Associates Inc.).
19.Instrument Science White Paper LIGO-T1200199-v2, p71, 2012, see

Data & Media loading...


Article metrics loading...



This paper describes the design and performance of an extremely low-noise differential transimpedance amplifier, which takes its two inputs from separate photodiodes. The amplifier was planned to serve as the front-end electronics for a highly sensitive shadow-displacement sensing system, aimed at detecting very low-level “Violin-Mode” () oscillations in 0.4 mm diameter by 600 mm long fused-silica suspension fibres. Four such highly tensioned fibres support the 40 kg test-masses/mirrors of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory interferometers. This novel design of amplifier incorporates features which prevent “noise-gain peaking” arising from large area photodiode (and cable) capacitances, and which also usefully separate the and photocurrents coming from the photodiodes. In consequence, the differential amplifier was able to generate straightforwardly two outputs, one per photodiode, as well as a single high-gain output for monitoring the oscillations—this output being derived from the difference of the photodiodes’ two, naturally anti-phase, photocurrents. Following a displacement calibration, the amplifier's final signal output was found to have an displacement responsivity at 500 Hz of (9.43 ± 1.20) MV(rms) m−1(rms), and, therefore, a shot-noise limited sensitivity to such shadow- (i.e., fibre-) displacements of (69 ± 13) picometres/√Hz at this frequency, over a measuring span of ±0.1 mm.


Full text loading...


Access Key

  • FFree Content
  • OAOpen Access Content
  • SSubscribed Content
  • TFree Trial Content
752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd