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Development of a balanced detector with biased synchronous detection and application to near shot noise limited noise cancelling of supercontinuum pulse light
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10.1063/1.4863879
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    Affiliations:
    1 Advanced Ultrafast Laser Research Center, The University of Electro-Communications, 1-5-1, Chofugaoka, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585, Japan
    2 CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8, Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012, Japan
    3 Keisoku Solution Co., Ltd., Haitsu enomoto B1F, 3-32-18, Nukuikitamachi, Koganei-shi, Tokyo 184-0015, Japan
    4 Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601, Japan
    5 Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan
    6 Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0971, Japan
    Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 023702 (2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4863879
/content/aip/journal/rsi/85/2/10.1063/1.4863879
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/rsi/85/2/10.1063/1.4863879

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Block diagram of the developed balanced-detection system. SP: spectrograph; PD: photodetector; PA: pre-amplifier; ML: multiplier; BPF: band-pass filter; : phase shifter; CMP: comparator; : bias for compensation of the unbalance between the probe signal and the reference signal; LPF: low-pass filter.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Circuit diagrams of the pre-amplifiers. (a) Transimpedance amplifier for direct signal amplification. APD: avalanche photo-diode. (b) Resonant amplifier. The resonant frequency equates to the pulse repetition.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Optics for stimulated Raman microscope equipped with the developed balanced detector (a) and electronic connections among the balanced detector, the light source, the controllers, and the lock-in amplifier (b). (a) The red, orange, and green lines show the pump light at 800 nm, the white probe light, and the white reference light, respectively. ISO: isolator; BS1: beam splitter for the pump light and the white light line; HWP: half-wave plate; PCF: photonic crystal fiber; Pol.; Glan-Thompson polarizer; PBS: polarizing beam splitter; DM; dichroic mirror; OL: objective lens; CL: condenser lens; PZS: piezo scanning stage; SPF: short-pass filter to reject the pump light; BS2: beam splitter used to observe beam spots; VND; variable neutral density filter; and CCD: charge-coupled device used to confirm the overlap of the beams. (b) SP: spectrograph; FB: fiber bundle; and PC: personal computer.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Spectra of the white probe light and the white reference light at the microscope.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Noise cancelling performance with the TIA vs optical input power of the probe light, and effect of the bias against the optical unbalance between the probe and reference lights. (1) and (2): calculated shot noise without and with the excess noise of the APD, respectively; (3) and (4): calculated and observed circuit noise; (5) and (6): noise on the probe light and that on the balanced detection in the optical balanced case; (7) and (8): those in the optical unbalanced case without the compensation; (9) and (10): those with the compensation by the bias. (a) Output RMS voltage and (b) normalized RMS voltage by the output of the chopped probe light.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Noise cancelling performance with the resonant pre-amplifier vs optical input power of the probe light. (1) and (2): calculated shot noise without and with the excess noise of the APD, respectively; (3) and (4): calculated and observed circuit noise; (5): the observed circuit noise with the TIA preamplifier for comparison; (6) and (7): noise on the probe light and that on the balanced detection; (8) and (9): those with the TIA. (a) Output RMS voltage and (b) normalized RMS voltage by the output of the chopped probe light.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Noise cancelling performance with the quarter cycle delay in the reference line vs optical input power of the probe light, and effect of the phase shift of the synchronous signal against the optical unbalance. (1) and (2): calculated shot noise without and with the excess noise of the APD, respectively; (3) and (4): calculated and observed circuit noise; (5) and (6): noise on the probe light and that on the balanced detection for the optical balanced case; (7) and (8): those with the half cycle delay in the reference line; (9) and (10): those in the optical unbalanced case without the compensation; (9) and (10): those with the compensation by the phase adjustment. (a) Output RMS voltage and (b) normalized RMS voltage by the output of the chopped probe light.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Stimulated Raman loss images of the 4 μm polystyrene beads (10 × 10 μm area) through the balanced detectors. (a) The image captured through the transimpedance pre-amplifier without the resonator and without the reference light; (b) that with the reference light. (c) The image captured through the resonant pre-amplifier without reference light; (d) that with the reference light.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Output signal intensities of the probe and reference lights with the TIA vs optical input power at the APD.

Generic image for table
Table II.

Output signal intensities of the probe and reference lights with the RA vs optical input power at the APD.

Generic image for table
Table III.

Output signal intensities of the probe and reference lights with the RA and the quarter cycle optical delay for the reference light vs optical input power at the APD.

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/content/aip/journal/rsi/85/2/10.1063/1.4863879
2014-02-05
2014-04-21
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Development of a balanced detector with biased synchronous detection and application to near shot noise limited noise cancelling of supercontinuum pulse light
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/rsi/85/2/10.1063/1.4863879
10.1063/1.4863879
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