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Experimental measurements and noise analysis of a cryogenic radiometer
1. R. W. Boyd, Radiometry and the Detection of Optical Radiation (John Wiley and Sons, 1983).
12. K. D. Irwin and G. C. Hilton, “Transition-edge sensors,” in Cryogenic Particle Detection, edited by C. Enss (Springer-Verlag, 2005), Vol. 99, p. 63–149.
13. D. McCammon, “Thermal equilibrium calorimeters - An introduction,” in Cryogenic Particle Detection, edited by C. Enss (Springer-Verlag, 2005), Vol. 99, pp. 1–34.
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35.Identification of particular manufacturers in this paper does not imply endorsement by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
LakeShore germanium resistance temperature sensor model GR-200A-2500-CD-1.4B. Technical specifications are available at http://www.lakeshore.com
The polyimide tubing used for the thermal link was manufactured by RiverTech Medical, LLC. The base material is Pyre-M.L. RC5019 Wire Enamel, which is 15%-16% Polyamic Acid of Pyromellitic Dianhydride/4,4-Oxydianiline, from Industrial Summit Technology Corporation (www.istusa.com
38. B. N. Taylor and C. E. Kuyatt, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Technical Note 1297 (NIST, 1994).
39.The equivalent noise bandwidth for the excitation circuit is taken as BH = (2Tint)−1 = 3 Hz, where Tint is the integration time from the Agilent 3458A Multimeter User's Guide, 4th ed., 2000.
40.The equivalent noise bandwidth for the ACRB is BG = 0.72 Hz, as discussed in the document entitled “Analytical model of the analog filter in the 370” from LakeShore Cryotronics. An excitation frequency of 13.7 Hz is used as the reference frequency in the phase-sensitive detection of the resistance.
42. F. Reif, Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1965).
46.The current noise measured in closed-loop operation was always greater than the current noise measured in open-loop operation. Thus, although closed-loop operation enables greater control compared to open-loop operation, it may necessarily introduce greater noise. The choice of operation mode and the compromise between control and noise will depend on the timescale of the desired measurement.
49. G. J. Kahan, R. B. DeLano, A. E. Brennemann, and R. T. C. Tsui, “Superconducting tin films of low residual resistivity,” IBM J. Res. Development 4, 173 (1960).
51.We developed a process to microfabricate tin thin-film meander-line SC-TES on a polyimide substrate using photolithography, magnetron sputtering, and argon ion milling to minimize edge effects (see Ref. 49). The use of a flexible substrate allows the device to be wrapped around the neck of the ACR receiver in Fig. 1(a).
52.The stated experimental value of G from this work was obtained at a temperature of 1.885 K. The experimental values of (δV/δT) and from Ref. 8 were obtained at a temperature of 3.58 K. The quantity (δV/δT) will increase with decreasing temperature, while the quantity is nearly independent of temperature, resulting in a value of NEPMeissner at 1.885 K that is even smaller than the value calculated in the text.
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A cryogenic radiometer device, intended for use as part of an electrical-substitution radiometer, was measured at low temperature. The device consists of a receiver cavity mechanically and thermally connected to a temperature-controlled stage through a thin-walled polyimide tube which serves as a weak thermal link. With the temperature difference between the receiver and the stage measured in millikelvin and the electrical power measured in picowatts, the measured responsivity was 4700 K/mW and the measured thermal time constant was 14 s at a stage temperature of 1.885 K. Noise analysis in terms of Noise Equivalent Power (NEP) was used to quantify the various fundamental and technical noise contributions, including phonon noise and Johnson-Nyquist noise. The noise analysis clarifies the path toward a cryogenic radiometer with a noise floor limited by fundamental phonon noise, where the magnitude of the phonon NEP is 6.5 for the measured experimental parameters.
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