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Invited Review Article: Development of crystal lenses for energetic photons
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18.The Argonne Treaty Verification Program, directed by Dr. Armando Travelli, funded the construction of the large 45 cm diameter lens (1988–1992).
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25. A. Kohnle, R. Smither, T. Graber, P. v. Ballmoos, P. Laporte, and J.-F. Olive, “Realization of a tunable crystal lens as an instrument to focus gamma rays,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 408, 553–561 (1998).
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30. N. V. Abrosimov, A. Ludge, H. Riemann, and W. Schroder, “Lateral photo voltage scanning (LPS) for the visualization of the solid-liquid interface of Si1-x Gex single crystals” J. Cryst. Growth 237–239, 356–360 (2002).
31. H. Halloin, P. v. Ballmoos, P. Bastie, B. Hamelin, V. Lonjou, J. M. Alvarez, P. Jean, J. Knodlseder, R. K. Smither, and G. Verdenne, “ClLAIRE-gamma ray lens: flight and long distance results,” Proc. SPIE 5168, 471 (2004).
32. J. E. Naya, R. K. Smither, P. v. Ballmoos, F. Albernhe, M. Faiz, P. B. Fernandez, T. Graber, and G. Vedrenne, “Experimental results obtained with the positron annihilation-radiation telescope of the Toulouse-Argonne Collaboration,” paper presented at the Symposium on Imaging in High Energy Astronomy, Anacapri, Italy, 26–30 September 1994; published as part of the Proceedings of Imaging in High Energy Astronomy, edited by L. Bassani and G. di Cocco (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 1995), pp. 313–317.
36. D. E. Roa, R. K. Smither, X. Zhang, K. Nie, Y. Y. Shieh, N. S. Ramsinghani, N. Mile, J. V. Kuo, J. L. Redpath, M. S. A. L. Al-Ghazi, and P. Caligiuri, “Development of a new photon diffraction imaging system for diagnostic nuclear medicine,” Exp. Astrom. 20, 229–239 (2005).
37. R. K. Smither, “High resolution medical imaging system for 3-D imaging of radioactive sources with 1 mm FWHM spatial resolution,” Proc. SPIE 5030, 1052 (2003).
39. R. Smither, K. Abu Saleem, M. Beno, C. Kurtz, and A. Khounsary, “Diffraction efficiency and diffraction bandwidth of thermal-gradient and composition-gradient crystals,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 123107 (2005).
40. R. K. Smither, K. Abu Saleem, D. E. Roa, M. Beno, P. v. Ballmoos, and G. Skinner, “High diffraction efficiency, broadband, diffraction crystals for use in crystal diffraction crystals,” Exp. Astrom. 20, 201 (2005).
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52. P. v. Ballmoos, H. Halloin, G. K. Skinner, R. K. Smither, J. Paul, N. V. Abrosimov, J. M. Alvarez, P. Astier, P. Bastie, D. Barret, A. B. Azzano, A. Blanchard, A. Boutonnet, P. Brousse, B. Gordier, T. Courvoisier, P. Jean, J. Isern, J. Knodlseder, P. Laurent, F. Lebrun, A. Marcowith, V. Martinot, L. Natalucci, J.-F. Olive, R. Pain, R. Sadat, H. Sainct, P. Ubertini, and W. Schroder, “Max-A gamma-ray lens for nuclear astrophysics,” Proc. SPIE 5168, 482 (2004).
53. N. Barriere, P. von Ballmoos, G. K. Skinner, R. K. Smither, P. Bastie, E. Hinglais, N. Abrosimov, J. M. Alvarez, K. Andersen, P. Courtois, H. Halloin, M. Harris, M. Hernanz, J. Isern, P. Jean, J. Knodlseder, P. Ubertini, G. Vedrenne, G. Weidenspointner, and C. Wunderer, “MAX: Development of a Laue diffraction lens for nuclear astrophysics,” Exp. Astrophys. 20(1-3), 269–278 (2005).
54. N. Barriere, P. von Ballmoos, P. Bastie, P. Courtois, N. V. Abrosimov, K. Andersen, G. Skinner, and R. K. Smither, “Second generation crystals for Laue lens applications” Proc. SPIE 6266(1), 62662D (2006).
55. R. K. Smither and P. B. Fernandez, “Variable-metric diffraction crystals for x-ray optics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1755–1762 (1992).
56. E. Erola, V. Etelaniemi, P. Suortti, P. Pattison, and W. Thomlinson, “X-ray reflectivity of bent perfect crystals in Bragg and Laue geometry,” J. Appl. Cryst. 23, 35–42 (1990).
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This paper follows the development of crystal diffraction lenses designed to focus energetic photons. It begins with the search for a solution to the astrophysics problem of how to detect weak astrophysics sources of gamma rays and x-rays. This led to the basic designs for a lens and to the understanding of basic limitations of lens design. The discussion of the development of crystal diffraction lenses is divided into two parts: lenses using crystals with mosaic structure, and lenses that use crystals with curved crystal planes. This second group divides into two sub-groups: (1) Curved crystals that are used to increase the acceptance angle of the diffraction of a monochromatic beam and to increase the energy bandwidth of the diffraction. (2) Curved crystals used to focus gamma ray beams. The paper describes how these two types of crystals affect the design of the corresponding crystal lenses in different fields: astrophysics, medical imaging, detection of weak, distant, gamma-ray sources, etc. The designs of crystal lenses for these applications are given in enough detail to allow the reader to design a lens for his own application.
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