Skip to main content

News about Scitation

In December 2016 Scitation will launch with a new design, enhanced navigation and a much improved user experience.

To ensure a smooth transition, from today, we are temporarily stopping new account registration and single article purchases. If you already have an account you can continue to use the site as normal.

For help or more information please visit our FAQs.

banner image
No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.
Nanotechnology, edited by G. Timp (Springer, New York, 1999).
K. L. Ekinci and M. L. Roukes, “Nanoelectromechanical systems,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 061101 (2005).
T. J. Kippenberg and K. J. Vahala, “Cavity opto-mechanics,” Opt. Express 15(25), 17172 (2007).
C. Rembe, G. Siegmund, H. Steger, and M. Wörtge, “Measuring MEMS in motion by laser-Doppler vibrometry,” in Optical Inspection of Microsystems, Optical Science and Engineering Series Vol. 109, edited by W. Osten (Taylor and Francis Books, Boca Raton, 2006), pp. 245292, ISBN: 0849336821.
G. A. Massey, Proc. IEEE 56, 2157 (1968).
L. E. Drain, The Laser Doppler Technique (John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 1980).
W. A. Edelstein, J. Hough, J. R. Pugh, and W. Martin, J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum. 11, 710 (1978).
C. Rembe, “There is plenty of room at the bottom to approach sub-femtometer vibrometry,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1457, 78 (2012).
H. Kogelnik and T. Li, “Laser beams and resonators,” Proc. IEEE 54(10), 13121329 (1966).
B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, “Fundamentals of photonics,” in Wiley Series in Pure and Applied Optic (Wiley, Hoboken, USA, 1991).
J. Eckerman, I. Freeman, and R. N. Hunt, “Run-out velocity acceleration tester with direct velocity measurement,” U.S. patent 5504571 (2 April 1996).
K. Takami, “Defect inspection of wafers by laser scattering,” Mater. Sci. Eng.: B 44(1–3), 181187 (1997).
E. Lawrence and I. Freeman, “Measuring nano-defects on hard disk drive platters using laser-Doppler vibrometry,” Polytec InFocus 2/2008, 24, 25available online at
C. Nguyen, “MEMS technology for timing and frequency control,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Eng. 54(2), 251270 (2007).
H. Chandrahalim, S. A. Bhave, R. G. Polcawich, J. Pulskamp, B. Pourat, S. Boedecker, and C. Rembe, “Heterodyne laser-Doppler interferometric characterization of contour-mode resonators above 1 GHz,” in IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium (Italy, Rome, 2009), pp. 2023.
C. Rembe, “Device and method for the interferometric measuring of an object,” U.S. patent 020150211841A1 (31 July 2015).
C. Rembe, L. Kadner, and M. Giesen, AIP Conf. Proc. 1600, 143 (2014).

Data & Media loading...


Article metrics loading...



The heterodyne two-beam interferometer has been proven to be the optimal solution for laser-Doppler vibrometry (LDV) regarding accuracy and signal robustness. The theoretical resolution limit for a two-beam interferometer of laser class 3R (up to 5 mW visible measurement-light) is in the regime of a few femtometer per square-root Hertz and well suited to study vibrations in microstructures. However, some new applications of radio-frequency microelectromechanical (RF-MEM) resonators, nanostructures, and surface-nano-defect detection require resolutions beyond that limit. The resolution depends only on the photodetector noise and the sensor sensitivity to specimen displacements. The noise is already defined in present systems by the quantum nature of light for a properly designed optical sensor and more light would lead to an inacceptable influence like heating of the tiny specimen. Noise can only be improved by squeezed-light techniques which require a negligible loss of measurement light which is impossible to realize for almost all technical measurement tasks. Thus, improving the sensitivity is the only path which could make attometer laser vibrometry possible. Decreasing the measurement wavelength would increase the sensitivity but would also increase the photon shot noise. In this paper, we discuss an approach to increase the sensitivity by assembling an additional mirror between interferometer and specimen to form an optical cavity. A detailed theoretical analysis of this setup is presented and we derive the resolution limit, discuss the main contributions to the uncertainty budget, and show a first experiment proving the sensitivity and resolution improvement of our approach.


Full text loading...


Access Key

  • FFree Content
  • OAOpen Access Content
  • SSubscribed Content
  • TFree Trial Content
752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd