Volume 86, Issue 7, July 2015
Index of content:
- Optics; Atoms and Molecules; Spectroscopy; Photon Detectors
Velocity map imaging with non-uniform detection: Quantitative molecular axis alignment measurements via Coulomb explosion imaging86(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4922137View Description Hide Description
We present a method for inverting charged particle velocity map images which incorporates a non-uniform detection function. This method is applied to the specific case of extracting molecular axis alignment from Coulomb explosion imaging probes in which the probe itself has a dependence on molecular orientation which often removes cylindrical symmetry from the experiment and prevents the use of standard inversion techniques for the recovery of the molecular axis distribution. By incorporating the known detection function, it is possible to remove the angular bias of the Coulomb explosion probe process and invert the image to allow quantitative measurement of the degree of molecular axis alignment.
86(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4923277View Description Hide Description
We have developed a cryogenic amplifier for the measurement of small current signals (10 fA–100 nA) from cryogenic optical detectors. Typically operated with gain near 107 V/A, the amplifier performs well from DC to greater than 30 kHz and exhibits noise level near the Johnson limit. Care has been taken in the design and materials to control heat flow and temperatures throughout the entire detector-amplifier assembly. A simple one-board version of the amplifier assembly dissipates 8 mW to our detector cryostat cold stage, and a two-board version can dissipate as little as 17 μW to the detector cold stage. With current noise baseline of about 10 fA/(Hz)1/2, the cryogenic amplifier is generally useful for cooled infrared detectors, and using blocked impurity band detectors operated at 10 K, the amplifier enables noise power levels of 2.5 fW/(Hz)1/2 for detection of optical wavelengths near 10 μm.
- Particle Sources, Optics and Acceleration; Particle Detectors
86(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4922882View Description Hide Description
A pulsed, tunable, narrow band radiation source with frequency in the THz region can be obtained collecting the coherent transition radiation produced by a train of ultra-short electron bunches having picosecond scale inter-distance. In this paper, we review the techniques feasible at the SPARC_LAB test facility to produce and manipulate the requested train of electron bunches and we examine the dynamics of their acceleration and compression. In addition, we show how the performances of the train compression and the radiation intensity and bandwidth can be significantly improved through the insertion of a fourth order harmonic cavity, working in the X-band and acting as a longitudinal phase space linearizer.
- Nuclear Physics, Fusion and Plasmas
Combined hydrogen and lithium beam emission spectroscopy observation system for Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research86(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4923251View Description Hide Description
A novel beam emission spectroscopy observation system was designed, built, and installed onto the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak. The system is designed in a way to be capable of measuring beam emission either from a heating deuterium or from a diagnostic lithium beam. The two beams have somewhat complementary capabilities: edge density profile and turbulence measurement with the lithium beam and two dimensional turbulence measurement with the heating beam. Two detectors can be used in parallel: a CMOS camera provides overview of the scene and lithium beam light intensity distribution at maximum few hundred Hz frame rate, while a 4 × 16 pixel avalanche photo-diode (APD) camera gives 500 kHz bandwidth data from a 4 cm × 16 cm region. The optics use direct imaging through lenses and mirrors from the observation window to the detectors, thus avoid the use of costly and inflexible fiber guides. Remotely controlled mechanisms allow adjustment of the APD camera’s measurement location on a shot-to-shot basis, while temperature stabilized filter holders provide selection of either the Doppler shifted deuterium alpha or lithium resonance line. The capabilities of the system are illustrated by measurements of basic plasma turbulence properties.
86(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4923282View Description Hide Description
A method for analyzing the Wien filter spectra obtained from the plumes of Hall thrusters is derived and presented. The new method extends upon prior work by deriving the integration equations for the current and species fractions. Wien filter spectra from the plume of the NASA-300M Hall thruster are analyzed with the presented method and the results are used to examine key trends. The new integration method is found to produce results slightly different from the traditional area-under-the-curve method. The use of different velocity distribution forms when performing curve-fits to the peaks in the spectra is compared. Additional comparison is made with the scenario where the current fractions are assumed to be proportional to the heights of peaks. The comparison suggests that the calculated current fractions are not sensitive to the choice of form as long as both the height and width of the peaks are accounted for. Conversely, forms that only account for the height of the peaks produce inaccurate results. Also presented are the equations for estimating the uncertainty associated with applying curve fits and charge-exchange corrections. These uncertainty equations can be used to plan the geometry of the experimental setup.
86(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4923459View Description Hide Description
We describe a technique by which magnetic field probes are used to triangulate the exact position of breakdown in a high voltage coaxial vacuum gap. An array of three probes is placed near the plane of the gap with each probe at 90° intervals around the outer (anode) electrode. These probes measure the azimuthal component of the magnetic field and are all at the same radial distance from the cylindrical axis. Using the peak magnetic field values measured by each probe, the current carried by the breakdown channel, and Ampères law we can calculate the distance away from each probe that the breakdown occurred. These calculated distances are then used to draw three circles each centered at the centers of the corresponding magnetic probes. The common intersection of these three circles then gives the predicted azimuthal location of the center of the breakdown channel. Test results first gathered on the coaxial gap breakdown device (240 A, 25 kV, 150 ns) at the University of California San Diego and then on COBRA (1 MA, 1 MV, 100 ns) at Cornell University indicate that this technique is relatively accurate and scales between these two devices.
- Biology and Medicine
86(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4923294View Description Hide Description
This article describes the design, construction, and properties of an anthropomorphic thorax phantom with a moving surrogate tumor. This novel phantom permits detection of dose both inside and outside a moving tumor and within the substitute lung tissue material. A 3D printer generated the thorax shell composed of a chest wall, spinal column, and posterior regions of the phantom. Images of a computed tomography scan of the thorax from a patient with lung cancer provided the template for the 3D printing. The plastic phantom is segmented into two materials representing the muscle and bones, and its geometry closely matches a patient. A surrogate spherical plastic tumor controlled by a 3D linear stage simulates a lung tumor’s trajectory during normal breathing. Sawdust emulates the lung tissue in terms of average and distribution in Hounsfield numbers. The sawdust also provides a forgiving medium that permits tumor motion and sandwiching of radiochromic film inside the mobile surrogate plastic tumor for dosimetry. A custom cork casing shields the film and tumor and eliminates film bending during extended scans. The phantom, lung tissue surrogate, and radiochromic film are exposed to a seven field plan based on an ECLIPSE plan for 6 MV photons from a Trilogy machine delivering 230 cGy to the isocenter. The dose collected in a sagittal plane is compared to the calculated plan. Gamma analysis finds 8.8% and 5.5% gamma failure rates for measurements of large amplitude trajectory and static measurements relative to the large amplitude plan, respectively. These particular gamma analysis results were achieved using parameters of 3% dose and 3 mm, for regions receiving doses >150 cGy. The plan assumes a stationary detection grid unlike the moving radiochromic film and tissues. This difference was experimentally observed and motivated calculated dose distributions that incorporated the phase of the tumor periodic motion. These calculations modestly improve agreement between the measured and intended doses.
- Electronics; Electromagnetic Technology; Microwaves
Determining the microwave coupling and operational efficiencies of a microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition reactor under high pressure diamond synthesis operating conditions86(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4923092View Description Hide Description
The microwave coupling efficiency of the 2.45 GHz, microwave plasma assisted diamond synthesis process is investigated by experimentally measuring the performance of a specific single mode excited, internally tuned microwave plasma reactor. Plasma reactor coupling efficiencies (η) > 90% are achieved over the entire 100–260 Torr pressure range and 1.5–2.4 kW input power diamond synthesis regime. When operating at a specific experimental operating condition, small additional internal tuning adjustments can be made to achieve η > 98%. When the plasma reactor has low empty cavity losses, i.e., the empty cavity quality factor is >1500, then overall microwave discharge coupling efficiencies (ηcoup) of >94% can be achieved. A large, safe, and efficient experimental operating regime is identified. Both substrate hot spots and the formation of microwave plasmoids are eliminated when operating within this regime. This investigation suggests that both the reactor design and the reactor process operation must be considered when attempting to lower diamond synthesis electrical energy costs while still enabling a very versatile and flexible operation performance.
86(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4923278View Description Hide Description
An energy harvester based on a round acoustic fence (RAF) has been proposed and studied. The RAF is composed of cylindrical stubs stuck in a circular array on a thin metal plate, which can confine the acoustic energy efficiently. By removing one stub and thus opening a small gap in the RAF, acoustic leakage with larger intensity can be produced at the gap opening. With the vibration source surrounded by the RAF, the energy harvesting at the gap opening has a wide bandwidth and is insensitive to the position of the vibration source. The results may have potential applications in harvesting the energy of various vibration sources in solid structure.