Volume 86, Issue 5, May 2015
Index of content:
- Optics; Atoms and Molecules; Spectroscopy; Photon Detectors
86(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4921194View Description Hide Description
Plenoptic cameras generally employ a microlens array positioned between the main lens and the image sensor to capture the three-dimensional target radiation in the visible range. Because the focal length of common refractive or diffractive microlenses is fixed, the depth of field (DOF) is limited so as to restrict their imaging capability. In this paper, we propose a new plenoptic camera using a liquid crystal microlens array (LCMLA) with electrically tunable focal length. The developed LCMLA is fabricated by traditional photolithography and standard microelectronic techniques, and then, its focusing performance is experimentally presented. The fabricated LCMLA is directly integrated with an image sensor to construct a prototyped LCMLA-based plenoptic camera for acquiring raw radiation of targets. Our experiments demonstrate that the focused region of the LCMLA-based plenoptic camera can be shifted efficiently through electrically tuning the LCMLA used, which is equivalent to the extension of the DOF.
86(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4921195View Description Hide Description
Avalanche photodiodes are commonly used as detectors for low energy x-rays. In this work, we report on a fitting technique used to account for different detector responses resulting from photoabsorption in the various avalanche photodiode layers. The use of this technique results in an improvement of the energy resolution at 8.2 keV by up to a factor of 2 and corrects the timing information by up to 25 ns to account for space dependent electron drift time. In addition, this waveform analysis is used for particle identification, e.g., to distinguish between x-rays and MeV electrons in our experiment.
86(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4919647View Description Hide Description
Periodic nonlinearity which can result in error in nanometer scale has become a main problem limiting the absolute distance measurement accuracy. In order to eliminate this error, a new integrated interferometer with non-polarizing beam splitter is developed. This leads to disappearing of the frequency and/or polarization mixing. Furthermore, a strict requirement on the laser source polarization is highly reduced. By combining retro-reflector and angel prism, reference and measuring beams can be spatially separated, and therefore, their optical paths are not overlapped. So, the main cause of the periodic nonlinearity error, i.e., the frequency and/or polarization mixing and leakage of beam, is eliminated. Experimental results indicate that the periodic phase error is kept within 0.0018°.
86(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4921353View Description Hide Description
Comprehensive studies of gas-solid reactions require the in-situ interaction of the gas at a pressure beyond the operating pressure of ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The recent progress of near ambient pressure XPS allows to dose gases to the sample up to a pressure of 20 mbar. The present work describes an alternative to this experimental challenge, with a focus on H2 as the interacting gas. Instead of exposing the sample under investigation to gaseous hydrogen, the sample is in contact with a hydrogen permeation membrane, through which hydrogen is transported from the outside to the sample as atomic hydrogen. Thereby, we can reach local hydrogen concentrations at the sample inside an UHV chamber, which is equipped with surface science tools, and this corresponds to a hydrogen pressure up to 1 bar without affecting the sensitivity or energy resolution of the spectrometer. This experimental approach is validated by two examples, that is, the reduction of a catalyst precursor for CO2 hydrogenation and the hydrogenation of a water reduction catalyst for photocatalytic H2 production, but it opens the possibility of the new in situ characterisation of energy materials and catalysts.
- Particle Sources, Optics and Acceleration; Particle Detectors
86(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4919413View Description Hide Description
Positrons are accumulated within a Penning trap designed to make more precise measurements of the positron and electron magnetic moments. The retractable radioactive source used is weak enough to require no license for handling radioactive material, and the radiation dosage 1 m from the source gives an exposure several times smaller than the average radiation dose on the earth’s surface. The 100 mK trap is mechanically aligned with the 4.2 K superconducting solenoid that produces a 6 T magnetic trapping field with a direct mechanical coupling.
Magnetized retarding field energy analyzer measuring the particle flux and ion energy distribution of both positive and negative ions86(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4919730View Description Hide Description
This paper presents the development of a magnetized retarding field energy analyzer (MRFEA) used for positive and negative ion analysis. The two-stage analyzer combines a magnetic electron barrier and an electrostatic ion energy barrier allowing both positive and negative ions to be analyzed without the influence of electrons (co-extracted or created downstream). An optimal design of the MRFEA for ion-ion beams has been achieved by a comparative study of three different MRFEA configurations, and from this, scaling laws of an optimal magnetic field strength and topology have been deduced. The optimal design consists of a uniform magnetic field barrier created in a rectangular channel and an electrostatic barrier consisting of a single grid and a collector placed behind the magnetic field. The magnetic barrier alone provides an electron suppression ratio inside the analyzer of up to 6000, while keeping the ion energy resolution below 5 eV. The effective ion transparency combining the magnetic and electrostatic sections of the MRFEA is measured as a function of the ion energy. It is found that the ion transparency of the magnetic barrier increases almost linearly with increasing ion energy in the low-energy range (below 200 eV) and saturates at high ion energies. The ion transparency of the electrostatic section is almost constant and close to the optical transparency of the entrance grid. We show here that the MRFEA can provide both accurate ion flux and ion energy distribution measurements in various experimental setups with ion beams or plasmas run at low pressure and with ion energies above 10 eV.
A confocal microscope position sensor for micron-scale target alignment in ultra-intense laser-matter experiments86(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4921554View Description Hide Description
A diagnostic tool for precise alignment of targets in laser-matter interactions based on confocal microscopy is presented. This device permits precision alignment of targets within the Rayleigh range of tight focusing geometries for a wide variety of target surface morphologies. This confocal high-intensity positioner achieves micron-scale target alignment by selectively accepting light reflected from a narrow range of target focal planes. Additionally, the design of the device is such that its footprint and sensitivity can be tuned for the desired chamber and experiment. The device has been demonstrated to position targets repeatably within the Rayleigh range of the Scarlet laser system at The Ohio State University, where use of the device has provided a marked increase in ion yield and maximum energy.
- Nuclear Physics, Fusion and Plasmas
86(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4920998View Description Hide Description
Presented are the results from tailoring the retarding field energy analyzer to measure the degree of charge compensation and regular patterns in the separations of ions of different mass, with the multicomponent ion flow spreading out in the plasma-optical mass separator model.
Fast valve based on double-layer eddy-current repulsion for disruption mitigation in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak86(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4920999View Description Hide Description
A fast valve based on the double-layer eddy-current repulsion mechanism has been developed on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). In addition to a double-layer eddy-current coil, a preload system was added to improve the security of the valve, whereby the valve opens more quickly and the open-valve time becomes shorter, making it much safer than before. In this contribution, testing platforms, open-valve characteristics, and throughput of the fast valve are discussed. Tests revealed that by choosing appropriate parameters the valve opened within 0.15 ms, and open-valve times were no longer than 2 ms. By adjusting working parameter values, the maximum number of particles injected during this open-valve time was estimated at 7 × 1022. The fast valve will become a useful tool to further explore disruption mitigation experiments on EAST in 2015.
- Microscopy and Imaging
86(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4919735View Description Hide Description
We report a thermal lens microscope (TLM) based on an optimized mode-mismatched configuration. It takes advantage of the coaxial counter propagating tightly focused excitation and collimated probe beams, instead of both focused at the sample, as it is in currently known TLM setups. A simple mathematical model that takes into account the main features of the instrument is presented. The confocal detection scheme and the introduction of highly collimated probe beam allow enhancing the versatility, limit of detection (LOD), and sensitivity of the instrument. The theory is experimentally verified measuring ethanol’s absorption coefficient at 532.8 nm. Additionally, the presented technique is applied for detection of ultra-trace amounts of Cr(III) in liquid solution. The achieved LOD is 1.3 ppb, which represents 20-fold enhancement compared to transmission mode spectrometric techniques and a 7.5-fold improvement compared to previously reported methods for Cr(III) based on thermal lens effect.
86(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4919010View Description Hide Description
Optical tweezers have been used to trap, manipulate, and measure individual cell properties. In this work, we show that the association of a computer controlled optical tweezers system with image processing techniques allows rapid and reproducible evaluation of cell deformability. In particular, the deformability of red blood cells (RBCs) plays a key role in the transport of oxygen through the blood microcirculation. The automatic measurement processes consisted of three steps: acquisition, segmentation of images, and measurement of the elasticity of the cells. An optical tweezers system was setup on an upright microscope equipped with a CCD camera and a motorized XYZ stage, computer controlled by a Labview platform. On the optical tweezers setup, the deformation of the captured RBC was obtained by moving the motorized stage. The automatic real-time homemade system was evaluated by measuring RBCs elasticity from normal donors and patients with sickle cell anemia. Approximately 150 erythrocytes were examined, and the elasticity values obtained by using the developed system were compared to the values measured by two experts. With the automatic system, there was a significant time reduction (60 × ) of the erythrocytes elasticity evaluation. Automated system can help to expand the applications of optical tweezers in hematology and hemotherapy.
Fast and reliable method of conductive carbon nanotube-probe fabrication for scanning probe microscopy86(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4921323View Description Hide Description
We demonstrate the procedure of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) conductive probe fabrication with a single multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) on a silicon cantilever pyramid. The nanotube bundle reliably attached to the metal-covered pyramid is formed using dielectrophoresis technique from the MWNT suspension. It is shown that the dimpled aluminum sample can be used both for shortening/modification of the nanotube bundle by applying pulse voltage between the probe and the sample and for controlling the probe shape via atomic force microscopy imaging the sample. Carbon nanotube attached to cantilever covered with noble metal is suitable for SPM imaging in such modulation regimes as capacitance contrast microscopy, Kelvin probe microscopy, and scanning gate microscopy. The majority of such probes are conductive with conductivity not degrading within hours of SPM imaging.
- Condensed Matter; Materials
A method for the monitoring of metal recrystallization based on the in-situ measurement of the elastic energy release using neutron diffraction86(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4919414View Description Hide Description
A method is proposed for the monitoring of metal recrystallization using neutron diffraction that is based on the measurement of stored energy. Experiments were performed using deformed metal specimens heated in-situ while mounted at the sample position of the High Resolution Powder Diffractometer, HRPD (ISIS Facility), UK. Monitoring the breadth of the resulting Bragg lines during heating not only allows the time-dependence (or temperature-dependence) of the stored energy to be determined but also the recrystallized fraction. The analysis method presented here was developed using pure nickel (Ni270) specimens with different deformation levels from 0.29 to 0.94. In situ temperature ramping as well as isothermal annealing was undertaken. The method developed in this work allows accurate and quantitative monitoring of the recrystallization process. The results from neutron diffraction are satisfactorily compared to data obtained from calorimetry and hardness measurements.
Thin film cryogenic thermometers defined with optical lithography for thermomagnetic measurements on films86(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4919734View Description Hide Description
Resistance thermometers are common secondary thermometers in cryogenic applications. Bulk RuO2 thermometers are used in dilution refrigerators because of their low magnetoresistances in addition to their temperature sensitivity. Thermoelectric and thermomagnetic measurements require multiple thermometers to measure temperature differences. Here, we present a method to fabricate thin film RuO2 thermometers directly onto an experimental substrate. This enhances thermal contact between thermometers and films whose thermoelectric or thermomagnetic properties may be measured. Commercial thermometers have higher temperature sensitivities than the thermometers presented in this study, but commercial thermometers must be carefully heat sunk to the cryostat or sample to be useful. Thin film thermometers can be patterned with ultraviolet (UV) lithography. This allows both the size of the thermometer and its distance from the sample, when also patterned with UV lithography, to be on the order of micrometers. A universal calibration curve for these thin film thermometers has not been produced. The efficacy of these thermometers has been demonstrated through measurements of the Nernst effect in Nb. In this study, the thin film thermometers were calibrated using the cryostat thermometers.
Development of micro-four-point probe in a scanning tunneling microscope for in situ electrical transport measurement86(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4919766View Description Hide Description
Electrons at surface may behave differently from those in bulk of a material. Multi-functional tools are essential in comprehensive studies on a crystal surface. Here, we developed an in situ microscopic four-point probe (4PP) transport measurement system on the basis of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). In particular, convenient replacement between STM tips and micro-4PPs enables systematic investigations of surface morphology, electronic structure, and electrical transport property of a same sample surface. Performances of the instrument are demonstrated with high-quality STM images, tunneling spectra, and low-noise electrical I-V characteristic curves of a single-layer FeSe film grown on a conductive SrTiO3 surface.
86(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4920921View Description Hide Description
The design of a piston pressure cell ranging up to approximately 11 kilobars is reported, which allows for optical reflection measurements in the infrared spectral range from 100 to 8000 cm−1 down to temperatures as low as 6 K. The mechanical alignment and vacuum considerations are discussed before details of the sample preparation are given, with particular emphasis on small and fragile single crystals, mosaics, and pressed powder. A few examples of one- and two-dimensional organic conductors illustrate the performance.
86(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4920920View Description Hide Description
A rapid high sensitive method for determining the Faraday rotation of optical glasses is proposed. Starting from an experimental setup based on a Faraday rod coupled to a lock-in amplifier in the detection chain, two methodologies were developed for providing reliable results on samples presenting low and large Faraday rotations. The proposed methodologies were critically discussed and compared, via results obtained in transmission geometry, on a new series of aluminophosphate glasses with or without rare-earth doping ions. An example on how the method can be used for a rapid examination of the optical homogeneity of the sample with respect to magneto-optical effects is also provided.
A compact and low-weight sputtering unit for in situ investigations of thin film growth at synchrotron radiation beamlines86(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4918620View Description Hide Description
In this work, we report on a highly variable, compact, and light high-vacuum sputter deposition unit designed for in situ experiments using synchrotron radiation facilities. The chamber can be mounted at various synchrotron beamlines for scattering experiments in grazing incidence geometry. The sample position and the large exit window allow to perform x-ray experiments up to large q values. The sputtering unit is easy to mount on existing experimental setups and can be remote-controlled. In this paper, we describe in detail the design and the performance of the new sputtering chamber and present the installation of the apparatus at different 3rd generation light sources. Furthermore, we describe the different measurement options and present some selected results. The unit has been successfully commissioned and is now available for users at PETRA III at DESY.
86(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4920922View Description Hide Description
Thermal noise is a limit to precision measurement in many fields. The relationship of the quality factor of mechanical systems to the thermal noise has compelled many researchers to search for materials with low mechanical losses. Typical measurements of mechanical quality factor involve exciting a mechanical resonator and observing the exponential decay of the amplitude under free oscillations. Estimation of the decay time allows one to infer the quality factor. In this article, we describe an alternative technique in which the resonator is forced to oscillate at constant amplitude, and the quality factor is estimated by measuring the drive amplitude required to maintain constant oscillation amplitude. A straightforward method for calibration of the quality factor is presented, along with an analysis of the propagation of measurement uncertainties. Such a technique allows the quality factor to be measured continuously in real time and at constant signal to noise ratio.
- Electronics; Electromagnetic Technology; Microwaves
86(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4919400View Description Hide Description
This paper provides an optimal parametric design for tri-axial nested Helmholtz coils, which are used to generate a uniform magnetic field with controllable magnitude and direction. Circular and square coils, both with square cross section, are considered. Practical considerations such as wire selection, wire-wrapping efficiency, wire bending radius, choice of power supply, and inductance and time response are included. Using the equations provided, a designer can quickly create an optimal set of custom coils to generate a specified field magnitude in the uniform-field region while maintaining specified accessibility to the central workspace. An example case study is included.