Volume 86, Issue 4, April 2015
Index of content:
- Optics; Atoms and Molecules; Spectroscopy; Photon Detectors
86(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4916256View Description Hide Description
Traditionally, continuous refractive index dispersion (CRID) measurement of materials with scattering is hard to realize. In this paper, CRID measurement based on the derivative total reflection method (CRIDM-DTRM) is proposed to measure the CRID of both absorption and scattering materials. It effectively determined the CRID of K9 glass, concentrated milk, and 0.5% methyl red solution in the 400-750 nm range with the spectral resolution of about 0.259 nm. For the first time, CRID of a scattering material is measured. CRIDM-DTRM is a useful technique in the field of RID measurement, especially for biotissues and anomalous dispersion materials.
86(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4916617View Description Hide Description
An adaptive Kirkpatrick–Baez mirror focusing optics based on piezoelectric deformable mirrors was constructed at SPring-8 and its focusing performance characteristics were demonstrated. By adjusting the voltages applied to the deformable mirrors, the shape errors (compared to a target elliptical shape) were finely corrected on the basis of the mirror shape determined using the pencil-beam method, which is a type of at-wavelength figure metrology in the X-ray region. The mirror shapes were controlled with a peak-to-valley height accuracy of 2.5 nm. A focused beam with an intensity profile having a full width at half maximum of 110 × 65 nm (V × H) was achieved at an X-ray energy of 10 keV.
86(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4914026View Description Hide Description
A novel fast wavelength calibration method for spectrometers based on a standard spectrometer and a double metal-cladding waveguide comb optical filter (WCOF) is proposed and demonstrated. By using the WCOF device, a wide-spectrum beam is comb-filtered, which is very suitable for spectrometer wavelength calibration. The influence of waveguide filter’s structural parameters and the beam incident angle on the comb absorption peaks’ wavelength and its bandwidth are also discussed. The verification experiments were carried out in the wavelength range of 200–1100 nm with satisfactory results. Comparing with the traditional wavelength calibration method based on discrete sparse atomic emission or absorption lines, the new method has some advantages: sufficient calibration data, high accuracy, short calibration time, fit for produce process, stability, etc.
86(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4916681View Description Hide Description
We propose a fast and accurate determination method for transverse relaxation of the spin-exchange-relaxation-free (SERF) magnetometer. This method is based on the measurement of magnetic resonance linewidth via a chirped magnetic field excitation and the amplitude spectrum analysis. Compared with the frequency sweeping via separate sinusoidal excitation, our method can realize linewidth determination within only few seconds and meanwhile obtain good frequency resolution. Therefore, it can avoid the drift error in long term measurement and improve the accuracy of the determination. As the magnetic resonance frequency of the SERF magnetometer is very low, we include the effect of the negative resonance frequency caused by the chirp and achieve the coefficient of determination of the fitting results better than 0.998 with 95% confidence bounds to the theoretical equation. The experimental results are in good agreement with our theoretical analysis.
86(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4916680View Description Hide Description
We report the development and performance studies of a newly built recoil ion momentum spectrometer for the study of atomic and molecular fragmentation dynamics in gas phase upon the impact of charged particles and photons. The present design is a two-stage Wiley-McLaren type spectrometer which satisfies both time and velocity focusing conditions and is capable of measuring singly charged ionic fragments up-to 13 eV in all directions. An electrostatic lens has been introduced in order to achieve velocity imaging. Effects of the lens on time-of-flight as well as on the position have been investigated in detail, both, by simulation and in experiment. We have used 120 keV proton beam on molecular nitrogen gas target. Complete momentum distributions and kinetic energy release distributions have been derived from the measured position and time-of-flight spectra. Along with this, the kinetic energy release spectra of fragmentation of doubly ionized nitrogen molecule upon various projectile impacts are presented.
The discrete Fourier transform algorithm for determining decay constants—Implementation using a field programmable gate array86(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4916709View Description Hide Description
Cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS) uses the exponential decay constant of light exiting a high-finesse resonance cavity to determine analyte concentration, typically via absorption. We present a high-throughput data acquisition system that determines the decay constant in near real time using the discrete Fourier transform algorithm on a field programmable gate array (FPGA). A commercially available, high-speed, high-resolution, analog-to-digital converter evaluation board system is used as the platform for the system, after minor hardware and software modifications. The system outputs decay constants at maximum rate of 4.4 kHz using an 8192-point fast Fourier transform by processing the intensity decay signal between ringdown events. We present the details of the system, including the modifications required to adapt the evaluation board to accurately process the exponential waveform. We also demonstrate the performance of the system, both stand-alone and incorporated into our existing CRDS system. Details of FPGA, microcontroller, and circuitry modifications are provided in the Appendix and computer code is available upon request from the authors.
86(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4916737View Description Hide Description
A laboratory-based X-ray reflectometer has been developed to measure the performance of hard X-ray multilayer coatings at their operational X-ray energies and incidence angles. The instrument uses a sealed-tube X-ray source with a tungsten anode that can operate up to 160 kV to provide usable radiation in the 15–150 keV energy band. Two sets of adjustable tungsten carbide slit assemblies, spaced 4.1 m apart, are used to produce a low-divergence white beam, typically set to 40 μm × 800 μm in size at the sample. Multilayer coatings under test are held flat using a vacuum chuck and are mounted at the center of a high-resolution goniometer used for precise angular positioning of the sample and detector; additionally, motorized linear stages provide both vertical and horizontal adjustments of the sample position relative to the incident beam. A CdTe energy-sensitive detector, located behind a third adjustable slit, is used in conjunction with pulse-shaping electronics and a multi-channel analyzer to capture both the incident and reflected spectra; the absolute reflectance of the coating under test is computed as the ratio of the two spectra. The instrument’s design, construction, and operation are described in detail, and example results are presented obtained with both periodic, narrow-band and depth-graded, wide-band hard X-ray multilayer coatings.
86(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4917302View Description Hide Description
We experimentally studied the dependence of high harmonic generation in argon and molecular hydrogen on pressure changes in a gas jet that cause variations of the phase matching conditions and absorption. The study was performed at a peak laser intensity of ∼1.5 × 1014 W/cm2. To enable measurements over a wide range of pressures, we employed differential pumping with an additional cell (∼20 cm3 volume) enclosing the gas jet. By increasing the pressure in the gas jet up to a maximum of 1.5 bars with argon or 0.5 bars with hydrogen, we observed an increase in the high harmonic (HH) yield until an optimum pressure of 0.2 bars was reached for Ar, beyond which the output began decreasing. For H2, we observed an increase of the HH output up to the maximum pressure of 0.5 bars. This pressure-dependence study allowed us to achieve a tenfold enhancement in the high harmonic yield at the optimum pressure.
Study of non-contact measurement of the thermal expansion coefficients of materials based on laser feedback interferometry86(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4917554View Description Hide Description
The noncooperative and ultrahigh sensitive length measurement approach is of great significance to the study of a high-precision thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) determination of materials at a wide temperature range. The novel approach is presented in this paper based on the Nd:YAG microchip laser feedback interferometry with 1064 nm wavelength, the beam frequency of which is shifted by a pair of acousto-optic modulators and then the heterodyne phase measurement technique is used. The sample is placed in a muffle furnace with two coaxial holes opened on the opposite furnace walls. The measurement beams are perpendicular and coaxial on each surface of the sample, the configuration which can not only achieve the length measurement of sample but also eliminate the influence of the distortion of the sample supporter. The reference beams inject on the reference mirrors which are put as possible as near the holes, respectively, to eliminate the air disturbances and the influence of thermal lens effect out of the furnace chamber. For validation, the thermal expansion coefficients of aluminum and steel 45 samples are measured from room temperature to 748 K, which proved measurement repeatability of TECs is better than 0.6 × 10−6(K−1) at the range of 298 K–598 K and the high-sensitive non-contact measurement of the low reflectivity surface induced by the oxidization of the samples at the range of 598 K–748 K.
86(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4917196View Description Hide Description
We have constructed an improved version of a photon-counting phase-modulation fluorometer (PC-PMF) with a maximum modulation frequency of 1.0 GHz, where a phase domain measurement is conducted with a time-correlated single-photon-counting electronics. While the basic concept of the PC-PMF has been reported previously by one of the authors, little attention has been paid to its significance, other than its weak fluorescence measurement capability. Recently, we have recognized the importance of the PC-PMF and its potential for fluorescence lifetime measurements. One important aspect of the PC-PMF is that it enables us to perform high-speed measurements that exceed the frequency bandwidths of the photomultiplier tubes that are commonly used as fluorescence detectors. We describe the advantages of the PC-PMF and demonstrate its usefulness based on fundamental performance tests. In our new version of the PC-PMF, we have used a laser diode (LD) as an excitation light source rather than the light-emitting diode that was used in the primary version. We have also designed a simple and stable LD driver to modulate the device. Additionally, we have obtained a sinusoidal histogram waveform that has multiple cycles within a time span to be measured, which is indispensable for precise phase measurements. With focus on the fluorescence intensity and the resolution time, we have compared the performance of the PC-PMF with that of a conventional PMF using the analogue light detection method.
Determination of the solid angle and response function of a hemispherical spectrograph with injection lens for Auger electrons emitted from long lived projectile states86(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4917274View Description Hide Description
We present SIMION 8.1 Monte Carlo type simulations of the response function and detection solid angle for long lived Auger states (lifetime τ ∼ 10−9 − 10−5 s) recorded by a hemispherical spectrograph with injection lens and position sensitive detector used for high resolution Auger spectroscopy of ion beams. Also included in these simulations for the first time are kinematic effects particular to Auger emission from fast moving projectile ions such as line broadening and solid angle limitations allowing for a more accurate and realistic line shape modeling. Our results are found to be in excellent agreement with measured electron line shapes of both long lived 1s2s2p 4P and prompt Auger projectile states formed by electron capture in collisions of 25.3 MeV F7+ with H2 and 12.0 MeV C4+ with Ne recorded at 0∘ to the beam direction. These results are important for the accurate evaluation of the 1s2s2p 4P/2P ratio of K-Auger cross sections whose observed non-statistical production by electron capture into He-like ions, recently a field of interesting interpretations, awaits further resolution.
86(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4917195View Description Hide Description
A normal-incidence visible and near-infrared shock wave optical reflectivity diagnostic was constructed to investigate changes in the optical properties of materials under dynamic laser compression. Documenting wavelength- and time-dependent changes in the optical properties of laser-shock compressed samples has been difficult, primarily due to the small sample sizes and short time scales involved, but we succeeded in doing so by broadening a series of time delayed 800-nm pulses from an ultrafast Ti:sapphire laser to generate high-intensity broadband light at nanosecond time scales. This diagnostic was demonstrated over the wavelength range 450–1150 nm with up to 16 time displaced spectra during a single shock experiment. Simultaneous off-normal incidence velocity interferometry (velocity interferometer system for any reflector) characterized the sample under laser-compression and also provided an independent reflectivity measurement at 532 nm wavelength. The shock-driven semiconductor-to-metallic transition in germanium was documented by the way of reflectivity measurements with 0.5 ns time resolution and a wavelength resolution of 10 nm.
86(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4917558View Description Hide Description
We have constructed a solid-state light source for experiments with laser cooled lithium atoms based on a Nd:Y V O4 ring laser with second-harmonic generation. Unidirectional lasing, an improved mode selection, and a high output power of the ring laser were achieved by weak coupling to an external cavity which contained the lossy elements required for single frequency operation. Continuous frequency tuning is accomplished by controlling two piezoelectric transducers (PZTs) in the internal and the external cavities simultaneously. The light source has been utilized to trap and cool fermionic lithium atoms into the quantum degenerate regime.
- Particle Sources, Optics and Acceleration; Particle Detectors
The development of a room temperature electron cyclotron resonance ion source (Lanzhou electron cyclotron resonance ion source No. 4) with evaporative cooling technology at Institute of Modern Physics86(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4916658View Description Hide Description
LECR4 (Lanzhou electron cyclotron resonance ion source No. 4) has been successfully constructed at IMP and has also been connected with the Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) and Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) systems. These source magnet coils are cooled through evaporative cooling technology, which is the first attempt with an ECR ion source in the world. The maximum mirror field is 2.5 T (with iron plug) and the effective plasma chamber volume is 1.2 l. It was designed to be operated at 18 GHz and aimed to produce intense multiple charge state heavy ion beams for the linear injector project SSC-Linac at IMP. In February 2014, the first analyzed beam at 18 GHz was extracted. During about three months’ commissioning, some outstanding results have been achieved, such as 1.97 emA of O6+, 1.7 emA of Ar8+, 1.07 emA of Ar9+, and 118 euA of Bi28+. The source has also successfully delivered O5+ and Ar8+ ion beams for RFQ commissioning in April 2014. This paper will give a brief overview of the design of LECR4. Then, the latest results of this source at 18 GHz will be presented.
86(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4916988View Description Hide Description
A multifunctional high voltage apparatus for experimental researches on surface flashover switch and high voltage insulation in vacuum has been developed. The apparatus is composed of five parts: pulse generating unit, axial field unit, radial field unit, and two switch units. Microsecond damped ringing pulse with peak-to-peak voltage 800 kV or unipolar pulse with maximum voltage 830 kV is generated, forming transient axial or radial electrical field. Different pulse waveforms and field distributions make up six experimental configurations in all. Based on this apparatus, preliminary experiments on vacuum surface flashover switch with different flashover dielectric materials have been conducted in the axial field unit, and nanosecond pulse is generated in the radial field unit which makes a pulse transmission line in the experiment. Basic work parameters of this kind of switch such as lifetime, breakdown voltage are obtained.
- Nuclear Physics, Fusion and Plasmas
86(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4917271View Description Hide Description
To study the anomalous transport, a correlation electron cyclotron emission (CECE) was planned to be developed on J-TEXT for electron temperature fluctuation measurement. The spectral decorrelation method was employed for the CECE system. It was developed based on the previous 16-channel electron cyclotron emission system. They shared the optical transmission line and mixer. The CECE part consists of 4 channels. Two fixed frequency narrow band filters were used for two channels and two yttrium iron garnet (YIG) filters for the other two channels. To meet the measuring requirement, some tests have been taken for the YIG filters. The results show good performance of the filters. Gaussian optics is used to produce a good poloidal resolution. Wavenumbers resolved by the CECE diagnostic are kθ ≤ 1.5 rad/cm and kr ≤ 12 rad/cm. Some preliminary experiment results are also presented in this paper.
A compact broadband ion beam focusing device based on laser-driven megagauss thermoelectric magnetic fields86(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4917273View Description Hide Description
Ultra-intense lasers can nowadays routinely accelerate kiloampere ion beams. These unique sources of particle beams could impact many societal (e.g., proton-therapy or fuel recycling) and fundamental (e.g., neutron probing) domains. However, this requires overcoming the beam angular divergence at the source. This has been attempted, either with large-scale conventional setups or with compact plasma techniques that however have the restriction of short (<1 mm) focusing distances or a chromatic behavior. Here, we show that exploiting laser-triggered, long-lasting (>50 ps), thermoelectric multi-megagauss surface magnetic (B)-fields, compact capturing, and focusing of a diverging laser-driven multi-MeV ion beam can be achieved over a wide range of ion energies in the limit of a 5° acceptance angle.
Simultaneous neutron and x-ray imaging of inertial confinement fusion experiments along a single line of sight at Omega86(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4918285View Description Hide Description
Neutron and x-ray imaging provide critical information about the geometry and hydrodynamics of inertial confinement fusion implosions. However, existing diagnostics at Omega and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) cannot produce images in both neutrons and x-rays along the same line of sight. This leads to difficulty comparing these images, which capture different parts of the plasma geometry, for the asymmetric implosions seen in present experiments. Further, even when opposing port neutron and x-ray images are available, they use different detectors and cannot provide positive information about the relative positions of the neutron and x-ray sources. A technique has been demonstrated on implosions at Omega that can capture x-ray images along the same line of sight as the neutron images. The technique is described, and data from a set of experiments are presented, along with a discussion of techniques for coregistration of the various images. It is concluded that the technique is viable and could provide valuable information if implemented on NIF in the near future.
- Microscopy and Imaging
Interaction between periodic structures of object and X-ray standing wave generated by wavefront-division interferometer86(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4916735View Description Hide Description
An x-ray imaging method that utilizes interaction between standing wave and periodic structure of object is proposed. When a periodic object is placed in a standing wave field, the interaction is modulated by relation between the periodic structure of object and the standing wave period. Then, the structure of object can be observed as a modulation of transmission image, and the existence of fine periodic structures can be detected with an imaging detector of low spatial resolution. Feasibility studies have been performed using a standing wave generated by a wavefront-division x-ray interferometer with refractive prism optics.
A dedicated compression device for high resolution X-ray tomography of compressed gas diffusion layers86(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4918291View Description Hide Description
We present an experimental approach to study the three-dimensional microstructure of gas diffusion layer (GDL) materials under realistic compression conditions. A dedicated compression device was designed that allows for synchrotron-tomographic investigation of circular samples under well-defined compression conditions. The tomographic data provide the experimental basis for stochastic modeling of nonwoven GDL materials. A plain compression tool is used to study the fiber courses in the material at different compression stages. Transport relevant geometrical parameters, such as porosity, pore size, and tortuosity distributions, are exemplarily evaluated for a GDL sample in the uncompressed state and for a compression of 30 vol.%. To mimic the geometry of the flow-field, we employed a compression punch with an integrated channel-rib-profile. It turned out that the GDL material is homogeneously compressed under the ribs, however, much less compressed underneath the channel. GDL fibers extend far into the channel volume where they might interfere with the convective gas transport and the removal of liquid water from the cell.