Index of content:
Volume 87, Issue 2, February 2016
- PROCEEDINGS OF THE 16TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ION SOURCES
- Theory, Fundamentals
87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4931789View Description Hide Description
We present the original approach to use plasma accelerators with closed electron drift (Hall-type ion sources), which, unlike traditional accelerators with metal and dielectric walls, have open walls and can be applied for creation cost effective low maintenance plasma devices based on plasma lens configuration for production of converging towards axis accelerated ion beams. The paper describes pilot sample of Hall-type plasma accelerator, the first experimental results, one-dimensional theoretical model, and exact analytical solutions following from it.
- Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources
87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4931711View Description Hide Description
The occurrence of kinetic plasma instabilities is studied in pulsed operation mode of a 14 GHz A-electron cyclotron resonance type electron cyclotron resonance ion source. It is shown that the temporal delay between the plasma breakdown and the appearance of the instabilities is on the order of 10-100 ms. The most important parameters affecting the delay are magnetic field strength and neutral gas pressure. It is demonstrated that kinetic instabilities limit the high charge state ion beam production in the unstable operating regime.
87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4931713View Description Hide Description
To demonstrate a Mixed Axial and Radial field System (MARS) as the best magnet scheme for future ECRISs, MARS-D, a demonstrative ECRIS using a NbTi MARS magnet is progressing at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. An optimized MARS design can use either NbTi or Nb 3Sn coils with reduced engineering complexities to construct the needed high-field magnets. The optimized magnet design could enhance MARS-D to a next generation ECRIS by producing minimum-B field maxima of 5.6 T axially and 3.2 T radially for operating frequencies up to 45 GHz. In-progress test winding has achieved a milestone demonstrating the fabrication feasibility of a MARS closed-loop coil.
87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4931716View Description Hide Description
Electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) plasmas are prone to kinetic instabilities due to anisotropic electron velocity distribution. The instabilities are associated with strong microwave emission and periodic bursts of energetic electrons escaping the magnetic confinement. The instabilities explain the periodic ms-scale oscillation of the extracted beam current observed with several high performance ECRISs and restrict the parameter space available for the optimization of extracted beam currents of highly charged ions. Experiments with the JYFL 14 GHz ECRIS have demonstrated that due to the instabilities the optimum B min-field is less than 0.8B ECR, which is the value suggested by the semiempirical scaling laws guiding the design of ECRISs.
Correlations between density distributions, optical spectra, and ion species in a hydrogen plasma (invited)87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4931720View Description Hide Description
An experimental study of plasma distributions in a 2.45 GHz hydrogen discharge operated at 100 Hz repetition rate is presented. Ultrafast photography, time integrated visible light emission spectra, time resolved Balmer-alpha emission, time resolved Fulcher Band emission, ion species mass spectra, and time resolved ion species fraction measurements have been implemented as diagnostic tools in a broad range of plasma conditions. Results of plasma distributions and optical emissions correlated with H +, , and ion currents by using a Wien filter system with optical observation capability are reported. The magnetic field distribution and strength is found as the most critical factor for transitions between different plasma patterns and ion populations.
87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4932393View Description Hide Description
The high current ion source with the low energy beam transport (LEBT) will serve as injector into the proton LINAC to provide primary proton beam for the production of antiprotons. The pulsed ion source developed and built in CEA/Saclay operates with a frequency of 2.45 GHz based on ECR plasma production with two coils with 87.5 mT magnetic field necessary for the electron cyclotron resonance. The compact LEBT consists of two solenoids with a maximum magnetic field of 500 mT including two integrated magnetic steerers to adjust the horizontal and vertical beam positions. The total length of the compact LEBT is 2.3 m and was made as short as possible to reduced emittance growth along the beam line. To measure ion beam intensity behind the pentode extraction system, between solenoids and at the end of the beam line, two current transformers and a Faraday cup are installed. To get information about the beam quality and position, the diagnostic chamber with different equipment will be installed between the two solenoids. This article reports the current status of the proton injector for the facility of antiproton and ion research.
- Electron Beam Ion Sources and Traps, Laser and MEVVA Ion Sources
87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4931619View Description Hide Description
Calcium and lithium ion beams are required by NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory to simulate the effects of cosmic radiation. To identify the difficulties in providing such highly reactive materials as laser targets, both species were experimentally tested. Plate shaped lithium and calcium targets were fabricated to create ablation plasmas with a 6 ns 1064 nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser. We found significant oxygen contamination in both the Ca and Li high charge state beams due to the rapid oxidation of the surfaces. A large spot size, low power density laser was used to create low charge state beams without scanning the targets. The low charge state Ca beam did not have any apparent oxygen contamination, showing the potential to clean the target entirely of oxide with a low power beam once in the chamber. The Li target was clearly still oxidizing in the chamber after each low power shot. To measure the rate of oxidation, we shot the low power laser at the target repeatedly at 10 s, 30 s, 60 s, and 120 s interval lengths, showing a linear relation between the interval time and the amount of oxygen in the beam.
Boron ion beam generation utilizing lanthanum hexaboride cathodes: Comparison of vacuum arc and planar magnetron glow87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4931798View Description Hide Description
Boron ion beams are widely used for semiconductor ion implantation and for surface modification for improving the operating parameters and increasing the lifetime of machine parts and tools. For the latter application, the purity requirements of boron ion beams are not as stringent as for semiconductor technology, and a composite cathode of lanthanum hexaboride may be suitable for the production of boron ions. We have explored the use of two different approaches to boron plasma production: vacuum arc and planar high power impulse magnetron in self-sputtering mode. For the arc discharge, the boron plasma is generated at cathode spots, whereas for the magnetron discharge, the main process is sputtering of cathode material. We present here the results of comparative test experiments for both kinds of discharge, aimed at determining the optimal discharge parameters for maximum yield of boron ions. For both discharges, the extracted ion beam current reaches hundreds of milliamps and the fraction of boron ions in the total extracted ion beam is as high as 80%.
87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4932005View Description Hide Description
We are developing a high brightness nano-aperture electron impact gas ion source, which can create ion beams from a miniature ionization chamber with relatively small virtual source sizes, typically around 100 nm. A prototype source of this kind was designed and successively micro-fabricated using integrated circuit technology. Experiments to measure source brightness were performed inside a field emission scanning electron microscope. The total output current was measured to be between 200 and 300 pA. The highest estimated reduced brightness was found to be comparable to the injecting focused electron beam reduced brightness. This translates into an ion reduced brightness that is significantly better than that of conventional radio frequency ion sources, currently used in single-ended MeV accelerators.
87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4932382View Description Hide Description
The paper reports on a study of the mass-charge state of the plasma produced in a vacuum arc discharge with composite cathodes which were copper-disk coated with a hydrogenated Zr film of thicknesses 9, 22, and 35 μm. The cathodes allow the generation of multicomponent gas and metal ion beams with a hydrogen ion content from several to several tens of percent. Also investigated is the dependence of the H ion fraction in a beam on the Zr film thickness during erosion to the point of disappearance of Zr peaks in mass-charge spectra. The ability of the vacuum arc system to produce H ions is analyzed by analyzing the cathode lifetime as a function of the film thickness and pulse repetition frequency.
- Negative Ion Sources
87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4931700View Description Hide Description
Factors limiting operating lifetime of a Compact Surface Plasma Sources (CSPS) are analyzed and possible treatments for lifetime enhancement are considered. Increased cooling permeate increased discharge power and increased beam intensity and duty factor. A design of an advanced CSPS with geometrical focusing of H− flux is presented.
87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4932008View Description Hide Description
CW 13.56 MHz radio frequency-driven H− ion source is under development at the University of Jyväskylä for replacing an existing filament-driven ion source at the MCC30/15 cyclotron. Previously, production of 1 mA H− beam, which is the target intensity of the ion source, has been reported at 3 kW of RF power. The original ion source front plate with an adjustable electromagnet based filter field has been replaced with a new front plate with permanent magnet filter field. The new structure is more open and enables a higher flux of ro-vibrationally excited molecules towards the plasma electrode and provides a better control of the potential near the extraction due to a stronger separation of the main plasma from the plasma electrode. While the original system provided better control over the e−/H− ratio, the new configuration has led to a higher production efficiency of 1 mA H− at 1.75 kW RF power. The latest results and upgrade plans are presented.
87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4931796View Description Hide Description
Experiments by a four-pin probe and photodetachment technique were carried out to investigate the charged particle flows in the beam extraction region of a negative hydrogen ion source for neutral beam injector. Electron and positive ion flows were obtained from the polar distribution of the probe saturation current. Negative hydrogen ion flow velocity and temperature were obtained by comparing the recovery times of the photodetachment signals at opposite probe tips. Electron and positive ions flows are dominated by crossed field drift and ambipolar diffusion. Negative hydrogen ion temperature is evaluated to be 0.12 eV.
87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4932009View Description Hide Description
Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) measurements of the atomic Balmer series and the molecular Fulcher transition have been carried out at the Linac4 ion source in order to determine plasma parameters. As the spectroscopic system was only relatively calibrated, the data evaluation only yielded rough estimates of the plasma parameters (Te ≈ 1.2 eV, ne ≈ 1 × 1019 m−3, and n H/nH2 ≈ 0.5 at standard operational parameters). The analysis of the Fulcher transition revealed a non-thermal “hockey-stick” rotational population of the hydrogen molecules. At varying RF power, the measurements at the on-axis line of sight (LOS) showed a peak in the rotational temperatures between 25 and 40 kW of RF power, whereas a steady decrease with power was observed at a tilted LOS, indicating the presence of strong plasma parameter gradients.
87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4932119View Description Hide Description
A new test stand at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) is being constructed to carry out experiments to develop and upgrade the present magnetron-type sources of H− ions of up to 80 mA at 35 keV in the context of the Proton Improvement Plan. The aim of this plan is to provide high-power proton beams for the experiments at FNAL. The technical details of the construction and layout of this test stand are presented, along with a prospective set of diagnostics to monitor the sources.
87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4932120View Description Hide Description
Existing RF ion sources for accelerators have specific efficiencies for H+ and H− ion generation ∼3–5 mA/cm2 kW, where about 50 kW of RF power is typically needed for 50 mA beam current production. The Saddle Antenna (SA) surface plasma source (SPS) described here was developed to improve H− ion production efficiency, reliability, and availability. In SA RF ion source, the efficiency of positive ion generation in the plasma has been improved to 200 mA/cm2 kW. After cesiation, the current of negative ions to the collector was increased from 1 mA to 10 mA with RF power ∼1.5 kW in the plasma (6 mm diameter emission aperture) and up to 30 mA with ∼4 kW RF. Continuous wave (CW) operation of the SA SPS has been tested on the test stand. The general design of the CW SA SPS is based on the pulsed version. Some modifications were made to improve the cooling and cesiation stability. CW operation with negative ion extraction was tested with RF power up to ∼1.2 kW in the plasma with production up to Ic = 7 mA. A stable long time generation of H− beam without degradation was demonstrated in RF discharge with AlN discharge chamber.
87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4932319View Description Hide Description
Wavelength spectra of Balmer-α light from plasmas in the extraction region of the Large Helical Device-R&D negative ion source, or the LHD one-third ion source have exhibited a blue shift as a negative bias voltage was applied to the plasma grid. The blue shift increased as the negative bias voltage with respect to the local plasma potential was increased. The measured spectra were compared with the velocity distributions of surface reflected hydrogen atoms calculated by atomic collisions in amorphous target code. The arc power and the source H2 pressure also affected the shift and broadening in the observed Balmer-α spectra. The possibility of identifying the negative hydrogen ions produced at the low work function plasma grid surface by high resolution spectroscopy is discussed.
87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4932322View Description Hide Description
To understand the Electron Energy Distribution Function (EEDF) in the Radio Frequency Inductively Coupled Plasmas (RF-ICPs) in hydrogen negative ion sources, the detailed analysis of the EEDFs using numerical simulation and the theoretical approach based on Boltzmann equation has been performed. It is shown that the EEDF of RF-ICPs consists of two parts, one is the low energy part which obeys Maxwellian distribution and the other is high energy part deviated from Maxwellian distribution. These simulation results have been confirmed to be reasonable by the analytical approach. The results suggest that it is possible to enhance the dissociation of molecules and the resultant H− negative ion production by reducing the gas pressure.
87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4932320View Description Hide Description
Progress is being made in the development of an Ion Source Test Facility (ISTF) by D-Pace Inc. in collaboration with Buckley Systems Ltd. in Auckland, NZ. The first phase of the ISTF is to be commissioned in October 2015 with the second phase being commissioned in March 2016. The facility will primarily be used for the development and the commercialization of ion sources. It will also be used to characterize and further develop various D-Pace Inc. beam diagnostic devices.
A collisional radiative model of hydrogen plasmas developed for diagnostic purposes of negative ion sources87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4932614View Description Hide Description
A collisional radiative model of low-pressure hydrogen plasmas is elaborated and applied in optical emission spectroscopy diagnostics of a single element of a matrix source of negative hydrogen ions. The model accounts for the main processes determining both the population densities of the first ten states of the hydrogen atom and the densities of the positive hydrogen ions H+, H2 +, and H3 +. In the calculations, the electron density and electron temperature are varied whereas the atomic and molecular temperatures are included as experimentally obtained external parameters. The ratio of the H α to H β line intensities is calculated from the numerical results for the excited state population densities, obtained as a solution of the set of the steady-state rate balance equations. The comparison of measured and theoretically obtained ratios of line intensities yields the values of the electron density and temperature as well as of the degree of dissociation, i.e., of the parameters which have a crucial role for the volume production of the negative ions.