Index of content:
Volume 87, Issue 2, February 2016
- PROCEEDINGS OF THE 16TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ION SOURCES
- Theory, Fundamentals
87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4931789View Description Hide Description
We present the original approach to use plasma accelerators with closed electron drift (Hall-type ion sources), which, unlike traditional accelerators with metal and dielectric walls, have open walls and can be applied for creation cost effective low maintenance plasma devices based on plasma lens configuration for production of converging towards axis accelerated ion beams. The paper describes pilot sample of Hall-type plasma accelerator, the first experimental results, one-dimensional theoretical model, and exact analytical solutions following from it.
- Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources
87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4931711View Description Hide Description
The occurrence of kinetic plasma instabilities is studied in pulsed operation mode of a 14 GHz A-electron cyclotron resonance type electron cyclotron resonance ion source. It is shown that the temporal delay between the plasma breakdown and the appearance of the instabilities is on the order of 10-100 ms. The most important parameters affecting the delay are magnetic field strength and neutral gas pressure. It is demonstrated that kinetic instabilities limit the high charge state ion beam production in the unstable operating regime.
87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4931713View Description Hide Description
To demonstrate a Mixed Axial and Radial field System (MARS) as the best magnet scheme for future ECRISs, MARS-D, a demonstrative ECRIS using a NbTi MARS magnet is progressing at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. An optimized MARS design can use either NbTi or Nb 3Sn coils with reduced engineering complexities to construct the needed high-field magnets. The optimized magnet design could enhance MARS-D to a next generation ECRIS by producing minimum-B field maxima of 5.6 T axially and 3.2 T radially for operating frequencies up to 45 GHz. In-progress test winding has achieved a milestone demonstrating the fabrication feasibility of a MARS closed-loop coil.
87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4931716View Description Hide Description
Electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) plasmas are prone to kinetic instabilities due to anisotropic electron velocity distribution. The instabilities are associated with strong microwave emission and periodic bursts of energetic electrons escaping the magnetic confinement. The instabilities explain the periodic ms-scale oscillation of the extracted beam current observed with several high performance ECRISs and restrict the parameter space available for the optimization of extracted beam currents of highly charged ions. Experiments with the JYFL 14 GHz ECRIS have demonstrated that due to the instabilities the optimum B min-field is less than 0.8B ECR, which is the value suggested by the semiempirical scaling laws guiding the design of ECRISs.
Correlations between density distributions, optical spectra, and ion species in a hydrogen plasma (invited)87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4931720View Description Hide Description
An experimental study of plasma distributions in a 2.45 GHz hydrogen discharge operated at 100 Hz repetition rate is presented. Ultrafast photography, time integrated visible light emission spectra, time resolved Balmer-alpha emission, time resolved Fulcher Band emission, ion species mass spectra, and time resolved ion species fraction measurements have been implemented as diagnostic tools in a broad range of plasma conditions. Results of plasma distributions and optical emissions correlated with H +, , and ion currents by using a Wien filter system with optical observation capability are reported. The magnetic field distribution and strength is found as the most critical factor for transitions between different plasma patterns and ion populations.
- Electron Beam Ion Sources and Traps, Laser and MEVVA Ion Sources
87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4931619View Description Hide Description
Calcium and lithium ion beams are required by NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory to simulate the effects of cosmic radiation. To identify the difficulties in providing such highly reactive materials as laser targets, both species were experimentally tested. Plate shaped lithium and calcium targets were fabricated to create ablation plasmas with a 6 ns 1064 nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser. We found significant oxygen contamination in both the Ca and Li high charge state beams due to the rapid oxidation of the surfaces. A large spot size, low power density laser was used to create low charge state beams without scanning the targets. The low charge state Ca beam did not have any apparent oxygen contamination, showing the potential to clean the target entirely of oxide with a low power beam once in the chamber. The Li target was clearly still oxidizing in the chamber after each low power shot. To measure the rate of oxidation, we shot the low power laser at the target repeatedly at 10 s, 30 s, 60 s, and 120 s interval lengths, showing a linear relation between the interval time and the amount of oxygen in the beam.
Boron ion beam generation utilizing lanthanum hexaboride cathodes: Comparison of vacuum arc and planar magnetron glow87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4931798View Description Hide Description
Boron ion beams are widely used for semiconductor ion implantation and for surface modification for improving the operating parameters and increasing the lifetime of machine parts and tools. For the latter application, the purity requirements of boron ion beams are not as stringent as for semiconductor technology, and a composite cathode of lanthanum hexaboride may be suitable for the production of boron ions. We have explored the use of two different approaches to boron plasma production: vacuum arc and planar high power impulse magnetron in self-sputtering mode. For the arc discharge, the boron plasma is generated at cathode spots, whereas for the magnetron discharge, the main process is sputtering of cathode material. We present here the results of comparative test experiments for both kinds of discharge, aimed at determining the optimal discharge parameters for maximum yield of boron ions. For both discharges, the extracted ion beam current reaches hundreds of milliamps and the fraction of boron ions in the total extracted ion beam is as high as 80%.
- Negative Ion Sources
87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4931700View Description Hide Description
Factors limiting operating lifetime of a Compact Surface Plasma Sources (CSPS) are analyzed and possible treatments for lifetime enhancement are considered. Increased cooling permeate increased discharge power and increased beam intensity and duty factor. A design of an advanced CSPS with geometrical focusing of H− flux is presented.
87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4932008View Description Hide Description
CW 13.56 MHz radio frequency-driven H− ion source is under development at the University of Jyväskylä for replacing an existing filament-driven ion source at the MCC30/15 cyclotron. Previously, production of 1 mA H− beam, which is the target intensity of the ion source, has been reported at 3 kW of RF power. The original ion source front plate with an adjustable electromagnet based filter field has been replaced with a new front plate with permanent magnet filter field. The new structure is more open and enables a higher flux of ro-vibrationally excited molecules towards the plasma electrode and provides a better control of the potential near the extraction due to a stronger separation of the main plasma from the plasma electrode. While the original system provided better control over the e−/H− ratio, the new configuration has led to a higher production efficiency of 1 mA H− at 1.75 kW RF power. The latest results and upgrade plans are presented.
87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4931796View Description Hide Description
Experiments by a four-pin probe and photodetachment technique were carried out to investigate the charged particle flows in the beam extraction region of a negative hydrogen ion source for neutral beam injector. Electron and positive ion flows were obtained from the polar distribution of the probe saturation current. Negative hydrogen ion flow velocity and temperature were obtained by comparing the recovery times of the photodetachment signals at opposite probe tips. Electron and positive ions flows are dominated by crossed field drift and ambipolar diffusion. Negative hydrogen ion temperature is evaluated to be 0.12 eV.
- Ion Sources for Fusion
87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4931709View Description Hide Description
The positive ion based source with a hot cathode based arc chamber and a tetrode accelerator was employed for a neutral beam injector on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST). Four ion sources were developed and each ion source has produced 4 MW @ 80 keV hydrogen beam on the test bed. 100 s long pulse operation with modulated beam has also been tested on the test bed. The accelerator was upgraded from circular shaped to diamond shaped in the latest two ion sources. In the latest campaign of EAST experiment, four ion sources injected more than 4 MW deuterium beam with beam energy of 60 keV into EAST.
87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4931786View Description Hide Description
A radio frequency (RF) ion source was designed and developed for neutral beam injector. A RF driver test bed was used with a RF generator with maximum power of 25 kW with 1 MHz frequency and a matching box. In order to study the characteristic of RF plasma generation, the capacitance in the matching box was adjusted with different cases. The results show that lower capacitance will better the stability of the plasma with higher RF power. In the future, new RF coils and matching box will be developed for plasma generators with higher RF power of 50 kW.
87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4931788View Description Hide Description
Multi-slit triode ion-optical systems with spherical electrodes are of interest for formation of intense focused neutral beams for plasma heating. At present, two versions of focusing multi-slit triode ion optical system are developed. The first ion optical system forms the proton beam with 15 keV energy, 140 A current, and 30 ms duration. The second ion optical system is intended for heating neutral beam injector of Tokamak Configuration Variable (TCV). The injector produces focused deuterium neutral beam with 35 keV energy, 1 MW power, and 2 s duration. In the later case, the angular beam divergence of the neutral beam is 20-22 mrad in the direction across the slits of the ion optical system and 12 mrad in the direction along the slits.
- Miscellaneous Ion Sources
87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4931618View Description Hide Description
Resonant Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) is nowadays an important technique in many Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facilities for its reliability and ability to ionize efficiently and element selectively. Grand Accélérateur National d’Ions Lourds (GANIL) Ion Source using Electron Laser Excitation (GISELE) is an off-line test bench for RILIS developed to study a fully operational resonant laser ion source at GANIL facility. The ion source body has been designed as a modular system to investigate different experimental approaches by varying the design parameters, to develop the future on-line laser ion source. The aim of this project is to determine the best technical solution which combines high selectivity and ionization efficiency with small ion beam emittance and stable long term operation. Latest results concerning emittance and time profile development as a function of the temperature for different ion source versions will be presented.
87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4931719View Description Hide Description
Smaller semiconductors require shallow, low energy ion implantation, resulting space charge effects, which reduced beam currents and production rates. To increase production rates, molecular ions are used. Boron and phosphorous (or arsenic) implantation is needed for P-type and N-type semiconductors, respectively. Carborane, which is the most stable molecular boron ion leaves unacceptable carbon residue on extraction grids. A self-cleaning carborane acid compound (C4H12B10O4) was synthesized and utilized in the ITEP Bernas ion source resulting in large carborane ion output, without carbon residue. Pure gaseous processes are desired to enable rapid switch among ion species. Molecular phosphorous was generated by introducing phosphine in dissociators via 4PH3 = P4 + 6H2; generated molecular phosphorous in a pure gaseous process was then injected into the HCEI Calutron-Bernas ion source, from which P4 + ion beams were extracted. Results from devices and some additional concepts are described.
- Beam Extraction, Transport and Handling, and Diagnostics
87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4931718View Description Hide Description
The article devotes a brief description of the recent development and current status of an ongoing research of plasma optical systems based on the fundamental plasma optical idea magnetic electron isolation, equipotentialization magnetic field lines, and the axi-symmetric cylindrical electrostatic plasma lens (PL) configuration. The experimental, theoretical, and simulation investigations have been carried out over recent years collaboratively between IP NASU (Kiev), LBNL (Berkeley, USA), and HCEI RAS (Tomsk). The crossed electric and magnetic fields inherent the PL configuration that provides the attractive method for establishing a stable plasma discharge at low pressure. Using PL configuration, several high reliability plasma devices were developed. These devices are attractive for many high-tech applications.