Index of content:
Volume 87, Issue 12, December 2016
- Optics; Atoms and Molecules; Spectroscopy; Photon Detectors
87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4968041View Description Hide Description
We developed a laser absorption sensor based on a pulsed, broadband tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) centered at 1285 cm−1. Unlike traditional infrared spectroscopy system, a quartz crystal tuning fork (QCTF) as a light detector was used for laser signal detection. Fast Fourier transform was applied to extract vibration intensity information of QCTF. The sensor system is successfully tested on nitrous oxide (N2O) spectroscopy measurements and compared with a standard infrared detector. The wide wavelength tunability of ECQCL will allow us to access the fundamental vibrational bands of many chemical agents, which are well-suited for trace explosive, chemical warfare agent, and toxic industrial chemical detection and spectroscopic analysis.
Measurement of the electro-optic coefficient during the photoelectric-field assisted poling using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4969057View Description Hide Description
This work describes the experimental apparatus based on the Mach-Zehnder interferometer for measuring the electro-optic coefficient during and after the photo-assisted poling process using a continuous light excitation. We also show that the poling can be performed at cryogenic temperatures. The setup is based on the superposition of a Mach-Zehnder AC modulation voltage on the DC bias voltage required to promote the chromophore orientation during light excitation. The effect of the reversible polarization due to the DC bias voltage applied to the polymer film is considered to calculate the electro-optic coefficient during the photo-assisted poling process. The usefulness of our setup is demonstrated with three polymer films, with different electro-optic activities: guest-host, copolymer, and homopolymer, all based on methyl methacrylate monomers and containing disperse red-1 chromophores.
87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4971302View Description Hide Description
A 45° dual-drive symmetric photoelastic modulator is demonstrated. Two piezoelectric actuators are connected to a symmetric photoelastic crystal at an angle of 45°. When the amplitudes of the stress standing waves induced by the two piezoelectric actuators are equal and the phase difference between the two stress standing waves is , the modulation axis performs circular motion with a frequency of half of the photoelastic modulator’s resonant frequency, while the retardation remains a constant that is determined at the driving voltage amplitudes. This reveals a new polarization modulation method. We have theoretically analyzed and experimentally observed the new polarization modulation, and the retardation calibration is also reported.
- Particle Sources, Optics and Acceleration; Particle Detectors
87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4968805View Description Hide Description
A new class of pulsed X-ray detection methods by sensing carrier changes in a diode laser cavity has been presented and demonstrated. The proof-of-principle experiments on detecting pulsed X-ray temporal profile have been done through the diode laser with a multiple quantum well active layer. The result shows that our method can achieve the aim of detecting the temporal profile of a pulsed X-ray source. We predict that there is a minimum value for the pre-bias current of the diode laser by analyzing the carrier rate equation, which exists near the threshold current of the diode laser chip in experiments. This behaviour generally agrees with the characterizations of theoretical analysis. The relative sensitivity is estimated at about 3.3 × 10−17 C ⋅ cm2. We have analyzed the time scale of about 10 ps response with both rate equation and Monte Carlo methods.
- Nuclear Physics, Fusion and Plasmas
87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4969052View Description Hide Description
The novel technique of Plasma-Assisted Vapor Deposition (PAVD) is developed as a new deposition method for thin metal films. The PAVD technique yields a high-quality thin film without any heating of the substrate because evaporated particles acquire energy from plasma that is confined to the inside of the evaporation source. Experiments of silver thin film deposition have been carried out in conditions of pressure lower than 10−3 Pa. Pure silver plasma generation is verified by the measurement of the Ag-I peak using optical emission spectroscopy. A four point probe and a UV-VIS spectrophotometer are used to measure the electrical and optical properties of the silver film that is deposited by PAVD. For an ultra-thin silver film with a thickness of 6.5 nm, we obtain the result of high-performance silver film properties, including a sheet resistance <20 Ω sq−1 and a visible-range transmittance >75%. The PAVD-film properties show a low sheet resistance of 30% and the same transmittance with conventional thermal evaporation film. In the PAVD source, highly energetic particles and UV from plasma do not reach the substrate because the plasma is completely shielded by the optimized nozzle of the crucible. This new PAVD technique could be a realistic solution to improve the qualities of transparent electrodes for organic light emission device fabrication without causing damage to the organic layers.
Bench testing of a heterodyne CO2 laser dispersion interferometer for high temporal resolution plasma density measurements87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4969055View Description Hide Description
A heterodyne detection scheme is combined with a 10.59 μm CO2 laser dispersion interferometer for the first time to allow large bandwidth measurements in the 10-100 MHz range. The approach employed utilizes a 40 MHz acousto-optic cell operating on the frequency doubled CO2 beam which is obtained using a high 2nd harmonic conversion efficiency orientation patterned gallium arsenide crystal. The measured standard deviation of the line integrated electron density equivalent phase resolution obtained with digital phase demodulation technique, is 4 × 1017 m−2. Air flow was found to significantly affect the baseline of the phase signal, which an optical table cover was able to reduce considerably. The heterodyne dispersion interferometer (DI) approach is found to be robustly insensitive to motion, with measured phase shifts below baseline drifts even in the presence of several centimeters of retroreflector induced path length variations. Plasma induced dispersion was simulated with a wedged ZnSe plate and the measured DI phase shifts are consistent with expectations.
87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4971317View Description Hide Description
A novel bi-directional Retarding Field Analyzer (RFA) probe has been installed on a fast reciprocating drive system on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) to measure the ion temperature and fast electron fluxes. A Langmuir probe assembly was added on the top of the RFA head to control the RFA position relative to the last closed flux surface and to have a possibility to measure the electron density and temperature as well. Except the ion temperature, the fast electron fluxes from both ion and electron drift sides have been measured during lower hybrid current drive. The RFA probe has been also used to measure the fast electrons associated with edge localized modes (ELMs), indicating their substantial presence in the scrape-off-layer plasma of EAST.
- Microscopy and Imaging
A sparsity-based iterative algorithm for reconstruction of micro-CT images from highly undersampled projection datasets obtained with a synchrotron X-ray source87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4968198View Description Hide Description
Synchrotron X-ray Micro Computed Tomography (Micro-CT) is an imaging technique which is increasingly used for non-invasive in vivo preclinical imaging. However, it often requires a large number of projections from many different angles to reconstruct high-quality images leading to significantly high radiation doses and long scan times. To utilize this imaging technique further for in vivo imaging, we need to design reconstruction algorithms that reduce the radiation dose and scan time without reduction of reconstructed image quality. This research is focused on using a combination of gradient-based Douglas-Rachford splitting and discrete wavelet packet shrinkage image denoising methods to design an algorithm for reconstruction of large-scale reduced-view synchrotron Micro-CT images with acceptable quality metrics. These quality metrics are computed by comparing the reconstructed images with a high-dose reference image reconstructed from 1800 equally spaced projections spanning 180°. Visual and quantitative-based performance assessment of a synthetic head phantom and a femoral cortical bone sample imaged in the biomedical imaging and therapy bending magnet beamline at the Canadian Light Source demonstrates that the proposed algorithm is superior to the existing reconstruction algorithms. Using the proposed reconstruction algorithm to reduce the number of projections in synchrotron Micro-CT is an effective way to reduce the overall radiation dose and scan time which improves in vivo imaging protocols.
- Condensed Matter; Materials
87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4969054View Description Hide Description
A new custom-designed system for a 3000 ton multi-anvil press has been developed to reach temperatures below room temperature at high pressures. The system was designed to remove heat selectively and conductively from the sample volume through six of the eight tungsten carbide (WC) cubes in direct contact with the octahedral pressure cell. The key components of the system include Cu cooling fins sandwiched between neighboring cube faces and the connected Cu heat exchange chamber through which liquid nitrogen flows. Currently, this system enables us to reach temperatures down to 220 K at pressures up to 8 GPa, but it can be easily modified to retain similar cooling capability at the highest pressure the press can reach (ca. 25 GPa).
87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4969053View Description Hide Description
The paper describes a time-resolved photoemission (TRPES) apparatus equipped with a Yb-doped fiber laser system delivering 1.2-eV pump and 5.9-eV probe pulses at the repetition rate of 95 MHz. Time and energy resolutions are 11.3 meV and ∼310 fs, respectively, the latter is estimated by performing TRPES on a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). The high repetition rate is suited for achieving high signal-to-noise ratio in TRPES spectra, thereby facilitating investigations of ultrafast electronic dynamics in the low pump fluence (p) region. TRPES of polycrystalline bismuth (Bi) at p as low as 30 nJ/mm2 is demonstrated. The laser source is compact and is docked to an existing TRPES apparatus based on a 250-kHz Ti:sapphire laser system. The 95-MHz system is less prone to space-charge broadening effects compared to the 250-kHz system, which we explicitly show in a systematic probe-power dependency of the Fermi cutoff of polycrystalline gold. We also describe that the TRPES response of an oriented Bi(111)/HOPG sample is useful for fine-tuning the spatial overlap of the pump and probe beams even when p is as low as 30 nJ/mm2.
Composition-tuning in a solid-state electrotransport furnace with active thermal expansion compensation87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4971300View Description Hide Description
A new solid-state electrotransport (SSE) apparatus for refining ultra-pure single crystals of metallic compounds under ultra-high vacuum is described. The setup employs a novel thermal expansion compensation mechanism to minimize mechanical stress on the sample during refinement with cold clamps for contamination-less purification at elevated temperatures. The apparatus is designed to tune the composition of initially slightly off-stoichiometric samples. The expansion compensation and stress-free operation were tested by recording the thermal expansion of elemental cerium in a treatment up to 655 °C. SSE refinement was then performed on a high-quality single crystal of U6Fe resulting in a 50% increase of its residual resistivity ratio to the highest value obtained for a single crystal to date.
- Biology and Medicine
87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4971325View Description Hide Description
We have investigated the development of a handheld 4 × 1 piezoelectric finger (PEF) array breast tumor detector system towards in vivo patient testing, particularly, on how the duration of the DC applied voltage, the depression depth of the handheld unit, and breast density affect the PEF detection sensitivity on 40 patients. The tests were blinded and carried out in four phases: with DC voltage durations 5, 3, 2, to 0.8 s corresponding to scanning a quadrant, a half, a whole breast, and both breasts within 30 min, respectively. The results showed that PEF detection sensitivity was unaffected by shortening the applied voltage duration from 5 to 0.8 s nor was it affected by increasing the depression depth from 2 to 6 mm. Over the 40 patients, PEF detected 46 of the 48 lesions (46/48)—with the smallest lesion detected being 5 mm in size. Of 28 patients (some have more than one lesion) with mammography records, PEF detected 31/33 of all lesions (94%) and 14/15 of malignant lesions (93%), while mammography detected 30/33 of all lesions (91%) and 12/15 of malignant lesions (80%), indicating that PEF could detect malignant lesions not detectable by mammography without significantly increasing false positives. PEF’s detection sensitivity is also shown to be independent of breast density, suggesting that PEF could be a potential tool for detecting breast cancer in young women and women with dense breasts.
- Electronics; Electromagnetic Technology; Microwaves
87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4969058View Description Hide Description
Linearity is an important and frequently sought property in electronics and instrumentation. Here, we report a method capable of, given a transfer function (theoretical or derived from some real system), identifying the respective most linear region of operation with a fixed width. This methodology, which is based on least squares regression and systematic consideration of all possible regions, has been illustrated with respect to both an analytical (sigmoid transfer function) and a simple situation involving experimental data of a low-power, one-stage class A transistor current amplifier. Such an approach, which has been addressed in terms of transfer functions derived from experimentally obtained characteristic surface, also yielded contributions such as the estimation of local constants of the device, as opposed to typically considered average values. The reported method and results pave the way to several further applications in other types of devices and systems, intelligent control operation, and other areas such as identifying regions of power law behavior.
87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4969059View Description Hide Description
We present an ultra-low noise, high-voltage driver suited for use with piezoelectric actuators and other low-current applications. The architecture uses a flyback switching regulator to generate up to 250 V in our current design, with an output of 1 kV or more possible with small modifications. A high slew-rate op-amp suppresses the residual switching noise, yielding a total root-mean-square noise of ≈100 μV (1 Hz–100 kHz). A low-voltage (±10 V), high bandwidth signal can be summed with unity gain directly onto the output, making the driver well-suited for closed-loop feedback applications. Digital control enables both repeatable setpoints and sophisticated control logic, and the circuit consumes less than 150 mA at ±15 V.
- Thermometry; Thermal Diffusivity; Acoustics; Photothermal and Photoacoustic
87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4969056View Description Hide Description
A new method has been proposed and verified to measure the Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity of a sample in the paper. Different from the conventional method for Seebeck coefficient and resistivity measurement, the new method adopts a four-point configuration to measure both the Seebeck coefficient and resistivity. It can well identify the inhomogeneity of the sample by simply comparing the four Seebeck coefficients of different probe combinations, and it is more accurate and appropriate to take the average value of the four Seebeck coefficients as the measured result of the Seebeck coefficient of the sample than that measured by the two-point method. Furthermore, the four-point configuration makes it also very convenient to measure the resistivity by using the Van der Pauw method. The validity of this method has been verified with both the constantan alloy and p-type Bi2Te3 semiconductor samples, and the measurement results are in good agreement with those obtained by commercial available equipment.
- Sensors and Actuators/MEMS/NEMS
Electrostatic energy harvesting device with dual resonant structure for wideband random vibration sources at low frequency87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4968811View Description Hide Description
In this paper, we present design and test of a broadband electrostatic energy harvester with a dual resonant structure, which consists of two cantilever-mass subsystems each with a mass attached at the free edge of a cantilever. Comparing to traditional devices with single resonant frequency, the proposed device with dual resonant structure can resonate at two frequencies. Furthermore, when one of the cantilever-masses is oscillating at resonance, the vibration amplitude is large enough to make it collide with the other mass, which provides strong mechanical coupling between the two subsystems. Therefore, this device can harvest a decent power output from vibration sources at a broad frequency range. During the measurement, continuous power output up to 6.2-9.8 μW can be achieved under external vibration amplitude of 9.3 m/s2 at a frequency range from 36.3 Hz to 48.3 Hz, which means the bandwidth of the device is about 30% of the central frequency. The broad bandwidth of the device provides a promising application for energy harvesting from the scenarios with random vibration sources. The experimental results indicate that with the dual resonant structure, the vibration-to-electricity energy conversion efficiency can be improved by 97% when an external random vibration with a low frequency filter is applied.
Photonic crystal fiber modal interferometer with Pd/WO3 coating for real-time monitoring of dissolved hydrogen concentration in transformer oil87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4971321View Description Hide Description
A highly-sensitive and temperature-robust photonic crystal fiber (PCF) modal interferometer coated with Pd/WO3 film was fabricated and studied, aiming for real-time monitoring of dissolved hydrogen concentration in transformer oil. The sensor probe was fabricated by splicing two segments of a single mode fiber (SMF) with both ends of the PCF. Since the collapse of air holes in the PCF in the interfaces between SMF and PCF, a SMF-PCF-SMF interferometer structure was formed. The Pd/WO3 film was fabricated by sol-gel method and coated on the surface of the PCF by dip-coating method. When the Pd/WO3 film is exposed to hydrogen, both the length and cladding refractive index of the PCF would be changed, resulting in the resonant wavelength shift of the interferometer. Experimental results showed that the hydrogen measurement sensitivity of the proposed sensor can reach 0.109 pm/(μl/l) in the transformer oil, with the measurement range of 0–10 000 μl/l and response time less than 33 min. Besides, the proposed sensor was temperature-insensitive without any compensation process, easy to fabricate without any tapering, polishing, or etching process, low cost and quickly response without any oil-gas separation device. All these performances satisfy the actual need of real-time monitoring of dissolved hydrogen concentration in the transformer oil.
87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4971326View Description Hide Description
In this work a new accurate wireless data logger using the Android interface was developed to monitor vibrations at low-cost. The new data logger is completely autonomous and extremely reduced in size. This instrument enables data collection wirelessly and the ability to display it on any tablet or smartphone with operating system Android. The prototype allows the monitoring of any industrial system with minimal investment in material and installation costs. The data logger is capable of making 12.8 kSPS enough to sample up to 5 kHz signals. The basic specification of the data logger includes a high resolution 1-axis piezoelectric accelerometer with a working range of ±30 G. In addition to the acceleration measurements, temperature can also be recorded. The data logger was tested during a 6-month period in industrial environments. The details of the specific hardware and software design are described. The proposed technology can be easily transferred to many other areas of industrial monitoring.
- General Instruments
Tunable transportable spectroradiometer based on an acousto-optical tunable filter: Development and optical performance87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4968818View Description Hide Description
We describe a high-performance, transportable, versatile spectroradiometer based on an acousto-optical tunable filter (AOTF). The instrument was developed for temperature metrology, namely, to determine the thermodynamic temperature of black bodies above the Ag freezing point (961.78 °C). Its main design feature is the attenuation of the diffraction side lobes (and, thus, out-of-band stray light) thanks to the use of a double-pass configuration. The radiofrequency tuning of the AOTF allows continuous, fine, and rapid wavelength control over a wide spectral range (650 nm–1000 nm). The instrument tunability can be easily calibrated with an Ar spectral lamp with reproducibility within 10 pm over one week. The instrument was characterised in terms of relative signal stability (few 10−4) and wavelength stability (1 pm) over several hours. The spectral responsivity of the instrument was calibrated with two complementary methods: tuning of the wavelength of the optical source or tuning the radiofrequency of the AOTF. Besides the application for thermodynamic temperature determination at the lowest uncertainty level, this instrument can also be used for multispectral non-contact thermometry of processed materials of non-grey and non-unitary emissivity (in the glass or metallurgical industries).
87(2016); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4968042View Description Hide Description
The rotational accuracy of a machine tool spindle has critical influence upon the geometric shape and surface roughness of finished workpiece. The rotational performance of the rolling element bearings is a main factor which affects the spindle accuracy, especially in the ultra-precision machining. In this paper, a new method is developed to measure the rotational accuracy of rolling element bearings of machine tool spindles. Variable and measurable axial preload is applied to seat the rolling elements in the bearing races, which is used to simulate the operating conditions. A high-precision (radial error is less than 300 nm) and high-stiffness (radial stiffness is 600 N/μm) hydrostatic reference spindle is adopted to rotate the inner race of the test bearing. To prevent the outer race from rotating, a 2-degrees of freedom flexure hinge mechanism (2-DOF FHM) is designed. Correction factors by using stiffness analysis are adopted to eliminate the influences of 2-DOF FHM in the radial direction. Two capacitive displacement sensors with nano-resolution (the highest resolution is 9 nm) are used to measure the radial error motion of the rolling element bearing, without separating the profile error as the traditional rotational accuracy metrology of the spindle. Finally, experimental measurements are performed at different spindle speeds (100-4000 rpm) and axial preloads (75-780 N). Synchronous and asynchronous error motion values are evaluated to demonstrate the feasibility and repeatability of the developed method and instrument.