Surprises abound when strong magnetic fields are imposed on two‐dimensional electron gases at low temperature. When the electron density approaches an integral multiple ν of the density of magnetic flux quanta threading the plane, the resistivity of the electron system begins to vanish and its Hall resistance takes on the quantized value to a spectacular level of precision. That's the integral quantum Hall effect, for whose serendipitous discovery at Grenoble in 1980 Klaus von Klitzing won the 1985 Nobel Prize in Physics.
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