Physics Today’s online staff summarize the most important and interesting news about science from the world's top media outlets.
There are 8 posts for the selected month (October 2015).
October 2, 2015 3:30 PM
Science: A research team reports the first direct observation of quantum fluctuations in a vacuum, or the temporary appearance of energetic particles in a point in space. Claudius Riek, Alfred Leitenstorfer, and colleagues at the University of Konstanz in Germany studied the phenomenon by looking for the subtle influences that are exerted on a transparent crystal by the fluctuating electric field produced by the birth and death of virtual photons. The researchers shot a “probe” pulse of light through the crystal and then measured the pulse’s polarization as it exited the other side. Over repeated trials, the polarization varied slightly, which, they claim, indicated the influence of vacuum fluctuations. Some scientists have questioned the results, however, saying some other source, such as thermal fluctuations, could be causing the variations in the crystal’s optical properties.
October 2, 2015 3:20 PM
New York Times: As the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change prepares to meet in Paris in December, India has announced its plan to lower its emissions and increase its production of solar, water, and wind power. India is the third largest carbon polluter in the world and the last of the world’s major economies to submit a climate-change plan. Despite having become one of the fastest-growing economies over the past couple of decades, India is still battling wide-scale poverty and relies heavily on cheap, coal-fired electricity to spur economic growth. Nevertheless, Prime Minister Narendra Modi says his people recognize that climate change is a priority and a global responsibility.
October 2, 2015 12:25 PM
Washington Post: One explanation for the extinction of the dinosaurs has been the catastrophic effects of a giant asteroid impact, evidenced by the Chicxulub crater on Mexico’s Yucatán Peninsula. However, some scientists have proposed instead the massive volcanism occurring in India around the same time. According to a recent study published in Science, both theories may be true. Paul Renne of the University of California, Berkeley, and his colleagues say the asteroid impact could have triggered earthquakes all over the world, which would have led to extensive fracturing of Earth’s crust. That in turn could have boosted the rate of lava flows in India’s Deccan Traps and released more disruptive gases and ash into the atmosphere. Such atmospheric pollutants would have had severe effects on Earth’s climate and could have led to the demise of many species.
October 2, 2015 10:50 AM
Nature: Despite having had one of the fastest growing economies for at least a decade, Brazil is now experiencing a severe economic slump. Since 2014, scientific research programs, fellowships, and grants have been cut, and many that had been awarded funding have yet to receive the money. Brazil’s Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MCTI), which saw its budget double between 2005 and 2010, received a 25% cut earlier this year, and the budget proposal for 2016 requests 24% less than that. Although Brazil’s science and technology minister, Aldo Rebelo, has asked for a loan of $2 billion from the Inter-American Development Bank in Washington, DC, “many fear that the worst is yet to come,” writes Elizabeth Gibney for Nature.
October 1, 2015 3:30 PM
Nature: Founded in 1992, NASA’s Discovery Program funds a series of lower-cost missions to explore the solar system. The most recent call for proposals yielded 27, which as of yesterday got shortened to 5. Those selected will each receive $3 million to further develop their proposals over the next year before the final decision is made in 2016. Two of the missions would target Venus: one involves a radar orbiter to map the planet’s surface, and the other, an atmospheric probe. The other three proposals are for a telescope to hunt for dangerous near-Earth objects, a probe to study the metal-rich asteroid Psyche, and a spacecraft to tour four Trojan asteroids that orbit near Jupiter. Because the proposals were so good, NASA says it may decide to fund two missions.
October 1, 2015 2:45 PM
Science: The rise in fee-based open-access publishing has led to an ever-increasing number of so-called predatory publishers, known for their questionable marketing and peer-review practices. According to a recent study, as of September 2014, there were at least 1030 such publishers putting out a total of 11 873 journals. From a random sampling of those journals, the researchers estimate that as many as 420 000 articles got published in 2014, earning the publishers some $75 million. Because most of the publishers and article authors were found to be based in developing Asian countries, such as India, the researchers conclude that the problems caused by predatory publishers are limited and regional. The influence of major research funders and policymakers in developed countries should provide more opportunities for authors in developing ones to publish in higher-quality journals, which will eventually drive predatory publishers out of business.
October 1, 2015 11:09 AM
Ars Technica: According to a study commissioned by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, women have a lower chance of winning early career grants than men. Romy van der Lee and Naomi Ellemers of Leiden University analyzed 2823 grant applications from young researchers over the period 2010–12. They found that the success rate for women was 14.9% while that for men was 17.7%. The researchers say the women received less favorable evaluations and lower ratings in the “quality of researcher” category than the men. In addition, they say, the documents provided during the grant application process contained gender-exclusive language that favored male applicants. However, the study has been criticized, most notably by statistician Casper Albers of the University of Groningen, who wrote a blog post detailing what he sees as some of its problems. He says the study researchers have fallen victim to a classical statistical trap, called Simpson’s paradox, and their conclusions don’t hold up when the data are broken down by discipline or when one looks at a wider time frame. One of his contentions is that because more women tended to apply in fields that had the lowest success rates, such as medical and social sciences, it only appears that women overall were less successful.
October 1, 2015 12:00 AM
New York Times: The Obama administration’s first major effort to set national standards for hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, has been blocked by a federal judge. Because of a surge in fracking operations in the US, the Bureau of Land Management was tasked with drafting rules regarding one aspect of the process, drilling safety. Although the regulations would have applied to oil and gas production on federal and tribal lands, the judge ruled that they would infringe on states’ rights. Not surprisingly, the decision has pleased industry groups and displeased environmental ones.
No further posts for this month