- Conference date: 22-27 July 1999
- Location: Sendai (Japan)
Over the past two decades, the dipole approximation has facilitated a basic understanding of the photoionization process in atoms and molecules. Recent experiments on the inner shells of small molecules at relatively low photon energies (⩽ 1000 eV) show strong nondipole effects. They are significant and measurable at energies close to threshold, in conflict with a common assumption that the dipole approximation is valid for photon energies below 1 keV.
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