- Conference date: 29-31 July 2002
- Location: San Diego, California (USA)
Late in the 19th century J. Loschmidt believed that a vertical column of gas in an isolated system would show a temperature gradient under the influence of gravity, cold at the top and warm at the bottom. L.Boltzmann and J.C. Maxwell disagreed. Their theories tried to prove an equal temperature over height. Experiments with various test setups are being presented which seem to strenghten the position of Loschmidt. Longterm measurements at room temperature show average temperature gradients of up to 0,07 °K/m in the walls of the enclosure, cold at the top and warm at the bottom. The measured values can be explained by the conversion of the potential energy of the molecules into an increase of their average speed through gravity.
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