- Conference date: 19-22 March, 2007
- Location: Gaithersburg, Maryland (USA)
A new generation of advanced laser, accelerator, and plasma confinement devices are emerging that are producing extreme states of light and matter that are unprecedented for laboratory study. Examples of such sources that will produce laboratory x‐ray emissions with unprecedented characteristics include megajoule‐class and ultrafast, ultraintense petawatt laser‐produced plasmas; tabletop high‐harmonic‐generation x‐ray sources; high‐brightness zeta‐pinch and magnetically confined plasma sources; and coherent x‐ray free electron lasers and compact inverse‐Compton x‐ray sources. Characterizing the spectra, time structure, and intensity of x rays emitted by these and other novel sources is critical to assessing system performance and progress as well as pursuing the new and unpredictable physical interactions of interest to basic and applied high‐energy‐density (HED) science. As these technologies mature, increased emphasis will need to be placed on advanced diagnostic instrumentation and metrology, standard reference data, absolute calibrations and traceability of results.
We are actively designing, fabricating, and fielding wavelength‐calibrated x‐ray spectrometers that have been employed to register spectra from a variety of exotic x‐ray sources (electron beam ion trap, electron cyclotron resonance ion source, terawatt pulsed‐power‐driven accelerator, laser‐produced plasmas). These instruments employ a variety of curved‐crystal optics, detector technologies, and data acquisition strategies. In anticipation of the trends mentioned above, this paper will focus primarily on optical designs that can accommodate the high background signals produced in HED experiments while also registering their high‐energy spectral emissions. In particular, we review the results of recent laboratory testing that explores off‐Rowland circle imaging in an effort to reclaim the instrumental resolving power that is increasingly elusive at higher energies when using wavelength‐dispersive techniques. These efforts inform the optimization of diagnostic designs that will permit acquisition of high‐resolution, hard x‐ray spectra in the HED environment.
- Plasma sources
- Emission spectra
- Ion sources
- Plasma confinement
- Plasma diagnostics
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