- Conference date: 10–13 June 2012
- Location: Heidelberg, Germany
Gold nanorods (GNR) in laser-induced thermal therapy can significantly increase light absorption, leading to a local temperature increase and causing irreversible cell damage. One of the key challenges in using GNR as a thermal therapy agent is to deliver a concentration of GNR to generate sufficient heat and cause cell death. In this study, ultrasound and microbubble induced sonoporation is used to enhance intracellular uptake of GNR and improve the therapeutic outcome of laserinduced thermal therapy. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells in suspension (0.6 mL) were treated with ultrasound and microbubbles (USMB) at 1 MHz frequency, 16 microseconds pulse duration, 1 kHz pulse repetition frequency, 1 minute insonation time, varying acoustic pressures (0, 1.26 and 1.73 MPa) and 10 μL Definity microbubble agent with and without GNR (12 nm × 48 nm) at varying concentration (1.0×1010 to 2.5×1011 GNR/mL). The GNR were manufactured through wet chemical synthesis process and measured using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) for size and concentration respectively. Following ultrasound and microbubble treatment, cells were centrifuged to remove excess gold nanorods and treated in suspension with an 810 nm laser (Diomed 60 NIR) at 4 W for 5 minutes. A thermal camera (FLIR Thermovision A40) was positioned to monitor the sample temperature throughout laser treatment and cell viability was assessed using flow cytometry with propidium iodide. Cell viability of 18±2% was achieved with GNR+USMB (1.26 MPa) compared to 72±3% with GNR alone (12 hour incubation) and 99±0.2% with USMB (1.26 MPa) alone. With increasing GNR concentration during ultrasound and microbubble treatment, laser induced sample temperature increased and consequently cell viability decreased. Cell viability decreased from 92±1% at 1.0×1011 GNR/mL to 29±5% at 1.5×1011 GNR/mL concentration with corresponding maximum temperatures of 50°C and 54°C, respectively. The combined treatment of ultrasound-microbubble and gold nanorod laser induced thermal-therapy showed a synergistic enhancement of cell death in vitro. This study shows promise for an enhanced therapeutic effect with the combined treatment in vivo.
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