- Conference date: 10–13 June 2012
- Location: Heidelberg, Germany
Ultrasound waves have been widely used in diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications. Accurate and effective simulation of ultrasound beam propagation and its interaction with tissue has been proved to be important. The nonlinear nature of the ultrasound beam propagation, especially in the therapeutic regime, plays an important role in the mechanisms of interaction with tissue. There are three main approaches in current computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to model and simulate nonlinear ultrasound beams: macroscopic, mesoscopic and microscopic approaches. In this work, a mesoscopic CFD method based on the Lattice-Boltzmann model (LBM) was investigated. In the developed method, the Boltzmann equation is evolved to simulate the flow of a Newtonian fluid with the collision model instead of solving the Navier-Stokes, continuity and state equations which are used in conventional CFD methods. The LBM has some prominent advantages over conventional CFD methods, including: (1) its parallel computational nature; (2) taking microscopic boundaries into account; and (3) capability of simulating in porous and inhomogeneous media. In our proposed method, the propagating medium is discretized with a square grid in 2 dimensions with 9 velocity vectors for each node. Using the developed model, the nonlinear distortion and shock front development of a finiteamplitude diffractive ultrasonic beam in a dissipative fluid medium was computed and validated against the published data. The results confirm that the LBM is an accurate and effective approach to model and simulate nonlinearity in finite-amplitude ultrasound beams with Mach numbers of up to 0.01 which, among others, falls within the range of therapeutic ultrasound regime such as high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) beams. A comparison between the HIFU nonlinear beam simulations using the proposed model and pseudospectral methods in a 2D geometry is presented.
- Lattice Boltzmann methods
- Flow simulations
- Boltzmann equations
Daniel Baumann, Mark G. Jackson, Peter Adshead, Alexandre Amblard, Amjad Ashoorioon, Nicola Bartolo, Rachel Bean, Maria Beltrán, Francesco de Bernardis, Simeon Bird, Xingang Chen, Daniel J. H. Chung, Loris Colombo, Asantha Cooray, Paolo Creminelli, Scott Dodelson, Joanna Dunkley, Cora Dvorkin, Richard Easther, Fabio Finelli, Raphael Flauger, Mark P. Hertzberg, Katherine Jones‐Smith, Shamit Kachru, Kenji Kadota, Justin Khoury, William H. Kinney, Eiichiro Komatsu, Lawrence M. Krauss, Julien Lesgourgues, Andrew Liddle, Michele Liguori, Eugene Lim, Andrei Linde, Sabino Matarrese, Harsh Mathur, Liam McAllister, Alessandro Melchiorri, Alberto Nicolis, Luca Pagano, Hiranya V. Peiris, Marco Peloso, Levon Pogosian, Elena Pierpaoli, Antonio Riotto, Uroš Seljak, Leonardo Senatore, Sarah Shandera, Eva Silverstein, Tristan Smith, Pascal Vaudrevange, Licia Verde, Ben Wandelt, David Wands, Scott Watson, Mark Wyman, Amit Yadav, Wessel Valkenburg and Matias Zaldarriaga
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