- Conference date: 23-27 March 1998
- Location: Gaithersburg, Maryland (USA)
Doping requirements for CMOS devices have been defined out to 50 nm gate size devices  and provide a context for the evaluation of in-line characterization needs. The wide range of doping processes used in CMOS fabrication, ranging in energies from ⩽1 keV to over 1 MeV and in dose from to presents a significant challenge to provide adequate coverage in a high-accuracy, fast-response metrology. An added challenge is to provide characterization tools that function in-line with fab operations or, even better in-situ with the process chamber. Fortunately, a wide variety of materials characterization techniques have been adapted to the needs of doping technology processes . However, the rapid advance of IC process requirements, a fundamental characteristic of the IC business, has pushed most of these techniques to their limits of performance. The list of critical areas for in-line monitoring starts with improved dosimetry for both shallow (source/drain and channel doping) and deep (CMOS well) junctions. Added to the dosimetry requirements is an increased need to monitor dopant profile shape and junction depth, especially for shallow junction’s . Monitoring of elemental and particulate contamination levels is critical for adequate yield and cost-effective operations. Because the ion ranges for ultra-shallow junctions are ⩽10 nm and the smallest particle size that can be imaged with routine techniques is ⩾180 nm, new technology is required to detect small size “killer particles” that can mask low-energy (⩽1 keV) ion beams. Control of wafer charging for gate dielectrics shrinking below 5 nm and increased antenna factors for large-area logic chips will drive the need for increased monitoring of net current flow from the ion beam-charge control plasma leading to development of in-situ sensing of plasma j-V characteristics.
- Metal insulator semiconductor structures
- Charged currents
Daniel Baumann, Mark G. Jackson, Peter Adshead, Alexandre Amblard, Amjad Ashoorioon, Nicola Bartolo, Rachel Bean, Maria Beltrán, Francesco de Bernardis, Simeon Bird, Xingang Chen, Daniel J. H. Chung, Loris Colombo, Asantha Cooray, Paolo Creminelli, Scott Dodelson, Joanna Dunkley, Cora Dvorkin, Richard Easther, Fabio Finelli, Raphael Flauger, Mark P. Hertzberg, Katherine Jones‐Smith, Shamit Kachru, Kenji Kadota, Justin Khoury, William H. Kinney, Eiichiro Komatsu, Lawrence M. Krauss, Julien Lesgourgues, Andrew Liddle, Michele Liguori, Eugene Lim, Andrei Linde, Sabino Matarrese, Harsh Mathur, Liam McAllister, Alessandro Melchiorri, Alberto Nicolis, Luca Pagano, Hiranya V. Peiris, Marco Peloso, Levon Pogosian, Elena Pierpaoli, Antonio Riotto, Uroš Seljak, Leonardo Senatore, Sarah Shandera, Eva Silverstein, Tristan Smith, Pascal Vaudrevange, Licia Verde, Ben Wandelt, David Wands, Scott Watson, Mark Wyman, Amit Yadav, Wessel Valkenburg and Matias Zaldarriaga
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