PROCEEDINGS OF THE FOURTH GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON POWER CONTROL AND OPTIMIZATION
1337(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3592436View Description Hide Description
Fine dust, especially those fractions below 10 and 2.5 microns can cause serious heart and respiratory disease and stringently requires effective pollutant standards and methods for their reduction. Therefore stricter immission European Union regulations [1, 2] were recently established, in order to improve the fine dust situation of the ambient air in Europe.
Nowadays among different technical separation devices, filtering, regenerateable dust separators are the most suitable ones to meet very low dust emission concentrations of industrial exhaust gases. But the disadvantage of this separator is the relative high pressure drop and sometimes a premature filter media clogging, which requires its costly replacement. In order to minimise this disadvantage, suitable design and standard laboratory test methods are in use. E.g. in Europe a German guideline (VDI 3926)  exists, by which in laboratory test runs optimal filter media can be evaluated. The problem is that within these test methods a so called aging procedure is included. The clogging behaviour of the aging procedure was basically investigated in this paper and a new test procedure for comparing different filter media with respect to the aging was developed.
1337(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3592437View Description Hide Description
The importance of effective energy conversion control, including power generation from renewable and environmentally clean energy sources, increases due to rising energy demand. Power electronic systems for controlling and converting electrical energy have become the workhorse of modern society in many applications, both in industry and at home. Power electronics plays a very important role in traction and can be considered as brawns of robotics and automated manufacturing systems. Power semiconductor devices are the key electronic components used in power electronic systems. Advances in power semiconductor technology have improved the efficiency, size, weight and cost of power electronic systems.
At present, IGCTs, IGBTs, and MOSFETs represent modern switching devices. Power integrated circuits (PIC) have been developed for the use of power converters for portable, automotive and aerospace applications. For advanced applications, new materials (SiC and GaN) have been introduced. This paper reviews the state of these devices and elaborates on their potentials in terms of higher voltages, higher power density, and better switching performance.
OPERATOR BASED ROBUST NONLINEAR CONTROL AND FAULT DETECTION: NEW APPROACH OF SYSTEM CONTROL ENGINEERING1337(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3592438View Description Hide Description
In this paper, a new approach of operator based robust nonlinear control and fault detection for system control engineering is reviewed. For obtaining robust stability and tracking performance of a nonlinear closed‐loop control system, a design scheme of robust tracking operator control system is given by using robust right coprime factorization approach. Then, for checking the tracking operator control system, a fault detection design technology based on robust right coprime factorization approach is also investigated. Following this, the presented method is applied to the Peltier actuated thermal process control system. Simulation and experimental results are given to confirm the proposed method.
1337(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3592439View Description Hide Description
Gasification is the most efficient Clean Coal Technology. Gasification of Merit Pila coal had been studied in a laboratory‐scale, atmospheric fluidized bed gasifier using air and air‐steam as fluidizing agent. Merit Pila coal was chosen for the gasification study because of its high reactivity in nitrogen. Determination of the producer gas compositions were conducted using Gas Chromatography. Gasification experiments were conducted at bed temperature of different equivalence ratios, ER and different bed heights. Low heating value, of the producer gas were in the range of Introduction of steam as the gasifying agents had shown significant increased of CO, and contents in producer gas. LHV also increased about 35% with the presence of steam.
MICRO‐COGENERATION INCL. THE CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY OF BIOMASS TO ELECTRIC ENERGY AND THE LOW POTENTIAL HEAT1337(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3592440View Description Hide Description
This article deals with combined production of heat and electricity for small premises, such as households, where energy consumption is around few kilowatts. This proposal of micro co‐generation unit uses as a heat source an automatic burner for combustion of wood pellets. Construction of an equipment for the heat transport can be designed using different basic ways of heat transfer. Electricity is produced by the two‐stroke steam engine and the generator.
1337(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3592441View Description Hide Description
The aim of the work is to develop a method of simple characterization of solid fuels combustion in fixed bed, which would be useful for CFD modelling. In this work, the measurements were performed in a test rig, where a combustion front propagates against the airflow. Concentrations of flue gas species were registered at the exit of a fixed bed reactor and the temperature of burning coal was measured in selected points of the reactor as functions of time.
Advanced Energy Conversion System Using Sinusoidal Voltage Tracking Buck‐Boost Converter Cascaded Polarity Changing Inverter1337(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3592442View Description Hide Description
This paper presents an advanced power converter employs a sinusoidal voltage absolute value tracking buck‐boost DC‐DC converter in the first power processing stage and a polarity changing full‐bridge inverter in the second stage. The proposed power conversion system has the capability of delivering sinusoidal output and input current with unity power factor and good output voltage regulation. Consequently, the complete voltage regulator system, which is mainly suitable for new energy generation systems as well as energy storage systems, can be constructed compactly and inexpensively without DC link electrolytic capacitor. Also, the paper presents an auxiliary passive resonant circuit for soft switching operation. Simulation results using PSIM software are presented to verify the operation principles and feasibility of the proposed power conversion system.
1337(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3592443View Description Hide Description
Pulp mill is one of the heavy industries that consumes large amount of electricity in its production. In particular, the breakdown of the generator would cause other generators to be overloaded. Thus, load shedding scheme is the best way in handling such condition. Selected load will be shed under this scheme in order to protect the generators from being damaged. In the meantime, the subsequence loads will be shed until the generators are sufficient to provide the power to other loads. In order to determine the sequences of load shedding scheme, analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is introduced. Analytic Hierarchy Process is one of the multi‐criteria decision making methods. By using this method, the priority of the load can be determined. This paper presents the theory of the alternative methods to choose the load priority in load shedding scheme for a large pulp mill.
1337(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3592444View Description Hide Description
This paper proposes a study of embedded generation (EG) placement in radial distribution system by utilizing real coded genetic algorithm (RCGA) technique. Several cases of EG models placements are studied in order to minimize the total power losses and to improve voltage profiles of the system. RCGA is a method that uses continuous floating numbers as representation which is different from conventional GA which is using binary numbers. The RCGA is used as a tool, which can determine the optimal location and size of EG in radial system concurrently. This method is developed in MATLAB. The IEEE‐69 bus system is utilized as a test case in this study.
1337(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3592445View Description Hide Description
The aim of this paper is to make a novel method for calculating the investment cost of Transmission services. It should be noted that some considerations such as used capacity, profits of reliability and profits of decreasing congestion‐the money allocated to transmission services‐ are also taken into account. The proposed method is tested on an 8 bus test system. All simulations are done in MATLAB environment, and MATPOWER is used for Power Flow Analysis. In order to verify the proposed method, the optimal results are compared with the pervious techniques. Therefore, the proposed technique in the paper has important effects on investment on transmission network by improving the profits of reliability and decreasing congestion. Furthermore, simulations show that increasing maximum acceptable level of current will decrease the profit of decreasing congestion.
1337(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3592446View Description Hide Description
Any plan for modeling the components of transmission service costs should be able to consider congestion as well as loss cost. Assessing the real value of congestion and loss costs in each network has a substantial contribution to analyze the grid’s weaknesses in order to release capacity of power network. As much as the amount of congestion and loss costs in the transmission grid reduces the amount of power passing through transmission lines increases. Therefore, the transmission service cost will be optimized and revenues of the regional electricity company from transmission services will be increased. In this paper, a new power flow algorithm with congestion and loss considerations of a power network is presented. Thus, optimal power flow and a multi‐objectives optimization algorithm, called NSGA‐II, is used in this work. The real data of Khuzestan regional power grid is implemented to confirm the efficiency of proposed method.
SELF‐ORGANIZING HIERARCHICAL PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION WITH TIME‐VARYING ACCELERATION COEFFICIENTS FOR ECONOMIC DISPATCH WITH VALVE POINT EFFECTS AND MULTIFUEL OPTIONS1337(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3592447View Description Hide Description
This paper proposes a self‐organizing hierarchical particle swarm optimization (SPSO) with time‐varying acceleration coefficients (TVAC) for solving economic dispatch (ED) problem with non‐smooth functions including multiple fuel options (MFO) and valve‐point loading effects (VPLE). The proposed SPSO with TVAC is the new approach optimizer and good performance for solving ED problems. It can handle the premature convergence of the problem by re‐initialization of velocity whenever particles are stagnated in the search space. To properly control both local and global explorations of the swarm during the optimization process, the performance of TVAC is included. The proposed method is tested in different ED problems with non‐smooth cost functions and the obtained results are compared to those from many other methods in the literature. The results have revealed that the proposed SPSO with TVAC is effective in finding higher quality solutions for non‐smooth ED problems than many other methods.
1337(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3592448View Description Hide Description
This paper proposes an augmented Lagrange Hopfield network (ALHN) for solving economic dispatch (ED) problem with multiple fuel options. The proposed ALHN method is a continuous Hopfield neural network with its energy function based on augmented Lagrangian function. The advantages of ALHN over the conventional Hopfield neural network are easier use, more general applications, faster convergence, better optimal solution, and larger scale of problem implementation. The method solves the problem by directly searching the most suitable fuel among the available fuels of each unit and finding the optimal solution for the problem based on minimization of the energy function of the continuous Hopfield neural network. The proposed method is tested on systems up to 100 units and the obtained results are compared to those from other methods in the literature. The results have shown that the proposed method is efficient for solving the ED problem with multiple fuel options and favorable for implementation in large scale problems.
1337(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3592449View Description Hide Description
Several control algorithms for autonomous mobile robot navigation have been proposed in the literature. Recently, the employment of non‐analytical methods of computing such as fuzzy logic, evolutionary computation, and neural networks has demonstrated the utility and potential of these paradigms for intelligent control of mobile robot navigation. In this paper, Mamdani fuzzy system for an autonomous mobile robot is developed. The paper begins with the discussion on the conventional controller and then followed by the description of fuzzy logic controller in detail.
1337(2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3592450View Description Hide Description
This paper investigates some conditions that can provide stabilizability for linear switched systems with polytopic uncertainties via their closed loop linear quadratic state feedback regulator. The closed loop switched systems can stabilize unstable open loop systems or stable open loop systems but in which there is no solution for a common Lyapunov matrix. For continuous time switched linear systems, we show that if there exists solution in an associated Riccati equation for the closed loop systems sharing one common Lyapunov matrix, the switched linear systems are stable. For the discrete time switched systems, we derive a Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI) to calculate a common Lyapunov matrix and solution for the stable closed loop feedback systems. These closed loop linear quadratic state feedback regulators guarantee the global asymptotical stability for any switched linear systems with any switching signal sequence.