COMPUTING ANTICIPATORY SYSTEMS: CASYS 2000  Fourth International Conference

Anticipatory effects in relativistic electromagnetism
View Description Hide DescriptionThis paper is a continuation of our preceding paper dealing with the foundation of anticipation in electromagnetism: the distance r(t^{′}) at time t^{′} from a moving charge to an observer is viewed by the observer as the anticipated distance at the future time where c is the light velocity of the propagation of the electrical potential. The anticipated distance is equal to the distance extrapolated by the velocity dr(t^{′})dt^{′} during For particle at rest or moving at small constant velocity, the anticipated distance is exactly the actual distance at time t. With acceleration and deceleration, the anticipated distance is no more equal to the actual distance: advanced or retarded distances occur depending on the trajectory properties. Numerical simulations were performed to show these anticipatory effects in the cases of different movements: at rest, at constant velocity, with acceleration and deceleration, and in oscillatory particles. In three dimensions space, the anticipated direction of the electrical field is exactly the actual direction for a particle moving at constant velocity. These anticipatory effects permit to understand the relativistic Lorentz transform in a new way.

Anticipation and meaning
View Description Hide Description“Can we truly compute, until we understand what information really is?” Gordon Scarrott. A new, mathematically described understanding of physically meaningful information, quantum holography, concerning actual knowledge of the 3 dimensional physical world in natural systems, is proposed. It is based on demonstrably proven anticipatory quantum mechanical laws and the new awareness in quantum theory. This understanding concerns a form of information, which holography shows, almost certainly existed before the origination of living systems and even from the beginning of the cosmos. It produces physically realisable mathematical definitions of the concepts of information, knowledge, learning, intelligence, perception, cognition, etc. Some of its other many advantages are cited. In particular, being quite distinct from bits, which are simply physically realisable mental models for the carriage/transmission of symbolic data (dependent for its meaning on human interpretation) it is not, its mathematical theory indicates, subject to the processing limitations of the combinatorial explosion governing algorithmic complexity, or to the known processing limitations of formal systems, such as the Halting Problem, as they are thought to apply to classical digital computing systems.

Constructional tools as the origin of cognitive capacities
View Description Hide DescriptionIt is argued that cognitive capacities can be understood as the outcome of the collective action of a set of agents created by tools that explore possible behaviors and train the agents to behave in such appropriate ways as may be discovered. The coherence of the whole system is assured by a combination of vetting the performance of new agents and dealing appropriately with any faults that the whole system may develop. This picture is shown to account for a range of cognitive capacities, including language.

From computing with numbers to computing with words—from manipulation of measurements to manipulation of perceptions
View Description Hide DescriptionComputing, in its usual sense, is centered on manipulation of numbers and symbols. In contrast, computing with words, or CW for short, is a methodology in which the objects of computation are words and propositions drawn from a natural language, e.g., small, large, far, heavy, not very likely, the price of gas is low and declining, Berkeley is near San Francisco, it is very unlikely that there will be a significant increase in the price of oil in the near future, etc. Computing with words is inspired by the remarkable human capability to perform a wide variety of physical and mental tasks without any measurements and any computations. Familiar examples of such tasks are parking a car, driving in heavy traffic, playing golf, riding a bicycle, understanding speech and summarizing a story. Underlying this remarkable capability is the brain’s crucial ability to manipulate perceptions—perceptions of distance, size, weight, color, speed, time, direction, force, number, truth, likelihood and other characteristics of physical and mental objects. Manipulation of perceptions plays a key role in human recognition, decision and execution processes. As a methodology, computing with words provides a foundation for a computational theory of perceptions—a theory which may have an important bearing on how humans make—and machines might make—perceptionbased rational decisions in an environment of imprecision, uncertainty and partial truth. A basic difference between perceptions and measurements is that, in general, measurements are crisp whereas perceptions are fuzzy. One of the fundamental aims of science has been and continues to be that of progressing from perceptions to measurements. Pursuit of this aim has led to brilliant successes. We have sent men to the moon; we can build computers that are capable of performing billions of computations per second; we have constructed telescopes that can explore the far reaches of the universe; and we can date the age of rocks that are millions of years old. But alongside the brilliant successes stand conspicuous underachievements and outright failures. We cannot build robots which can move with the agility of animals or humans; we cannot automate driving in heavy traffic; we cannot translate from one language to another at the level of a human interpreter; we cannot create programs which can summarize nontrivial stories; our ability to model the behavior of economic systems leaves much to be desired; and we cannot build machines that can compete with children in the performance of a wide variety of physical and cognitive tasks. It may be argued that underlying the underachivements and failures is the unavailability of a methodology for reasoning and computing with perceptions rather than measurements. An outline of such a methodology—referred to as a computational theory of perceptions—is presented in this paper. The computational theory of perceptions, or CTP for short, is based on the methodology of computing with words (CW). In CTP, words play the role of labels of perceptions and, more generally, perceptions are expressed as propositions in a natural language. CWbased techniques are employed to translate propositions expressed in a natural language into what is called the Generalized Constraint Language (GCL). In this language, the meaning of a proposition is expressed as a generalized constraint, X isr R, where X is the constrained variable, R is the constraining relation and isr is a variable copula in which r is a variable whose value defines the way in which R constrains X. Among the basic types of constraints are: possibilistic, veristic, probabilistic, random set, Pawlak singing then the emphasis is put on the action aspect, while if we want to say that the singing is loud then the emphasis is on the sound, which is treated as a thing since one hears it. The crucial point is that one seems to be forced to make such a distinction, as assists the determination of structure, but the origin of this distinction is probably related to the different ways actions and objects are represented in the brain generally. Here the relevant tool (for detecting groups) is one which takes note of which areas of the brain are active, and which in creating an agent from a group tries to respect existing patterns. The general pattern in the above has been the same as other instances that have been discussed: specific tools lead to the paradigms of activity being gradually extended. Certain characteristics of the resulting agents make this activity tend to the useful; thus the tools have a certain potential that can be fruitfully realised. As agents accumulate, the activity that they cooperate in becomes more and more complex, but the vetting of new additions to the system and of the overall activity of the system ensures that it remains useful and in control (ideally, of course; we know that in human societies, such regulatory activity does not always work very well).

Limiting velocity at the interface between causality and virtuality
View Description Hide DescriptionWe take a new look at the postulates of special relativity, at inertial reference frames, and at photons as carriers of the invariant signal velocity. We explore the interrelation between limiting velocity, causality and virtuality, and try to answer the question of whether signals can be transmitted faster than light. That is do tachyons exist. We study the implications on the existence of tachyons, of spacetime dimensionality, causality, rotational symmetry, Lorentz invariance, the principle of relativity, and the nonconservation of parity. We describe the expected characteristics and natural habitat of tachyons, and briefly discuss their possible applications in high speed computers, and in mediating the weak interactions. The preceding analysis leads us to briefly discuss fuzzy reference frames, the quantization of special relativity, the fifth state of matter and virtual mechanics.

Noncommutative geometry, the Bohm interpretation and the mindmatter relationship
View Description Hide DescriptionIt is argued that in order to address the mind/matter relationship, we will have to radically change the conceptual structure normally assumed in physics. Rather than fields and/or particlesininteraction described in the traditional Cartesian order based a local evolution in spacetime, we need to introduce a more general notion of process described by a noncommutative algebra. This will have radical implications for both for physical processes and for geometry. By showing how the Bohm interpretation of quantum mechanics can be understood within a noncommutative structure, we can give a much clearer meaning to the implicate order introduced by Bohm. It is through this implicate order that mind and matter can be seen as different aspects of the same general process.

A vacuum—generated inertia reaction force
View Description Hide DescriptionA clear and succinct covariant approach shows that, in principle, there must be a contribution to the inertia reaction force on an accelerated object by the surrounding vacuum electromagnetic field in which the object is embedded. No details of the vacuum to object electromagnetic interaction need to be specified other than the fact that the object is made of electromagnetically interacting particles. Some interesting consequences of this feature are discussed. This analysis strongly supports the concept that inertia is indeed an opposition of the vacuum fields to any attempt to change the uniform state of motion of material bodies. This also definitely shows that inertia should be viewed as extrinsic to mass and that causing agents and/or mechanisms responsible for the inertia reaction force are neither intrinsic to the notion of mass nor to the entities responsible for the existence of mass in elementary particles (as, e.g., the Higgs field). In other words the mechanism that produces the inertiareactionforce requires an explicit explanation. This explicit explanation is that inertia is an opposition of the vacuum fields to the accelerated motion of any material entities, i.e., of entities that possess mass. It is briefly commented why the existence of a Higgs field responsible for the generation of mass in elementary particles does not contradict the view presented here. It is also briefly discussed why a strict version of Mach’s Principle does really contradict this view, though a broad sense version of Mach’s Principle may be in agreement.

Quantum hologram and relativistic hodogram: Magnetic resonance tomography and gravitational wavelet detection
View Description Hide DescriptionQuantum holography is a well established theory of mathematical physics based on harmonic analysis on the Heisenberg Lie group G. The geometric quantization is performed by projectivization of the complexified coadjoint orbit picture of the unitary dual of G in order to achieve a geometric adjustment of the quantum scenario to special relativity theory. It admits applications to various imaging modalities such as synthetic aperture radar (SAR) in the microwave range, and, most importantly for the field of noninvasive medical diagnosis, to the clinical imaging modality of magnetic resonance tomography (MRI) in the radio frequency range. Quantum holography explains the quantum teleportation phenomemon through EinsteinPodolskyRosen (EPR) channels which is a consequence of the nonlocality of phase coherent quantum field theory, the concept of absolute simultaneity of special relativity theory which provides the Einstein equivalence of energy and FitzgeraldLorentz dilated mass, and the perfect quantum holographic replication process of molecular genetic information processing. It specifically reveals what was before unobservable in quantum optics, namely the interference phenomena of matter wavelets of BoseEinstein condensates, and what was before unobservable in special relativity, namely the light in flight (LIF) recording processing by ultrafast laser pulse trains. Finally, it provides a Lie group theoretical approach to the Kruskal coordinatized Schwarzschild manifold of relativistic cosmology with large scale applications to general relativity theory such as gravitational instanton symmetries and the theory of black holes. The direct spinorial detection of gravitational wavelets emitted by the binary radio pulsar PSR and known only by anticipatory system computation so far will also be based on the principles of quantum holography applied to very large array (VLA) radio interferometers.

The transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics
View Description Hide DescriptionThe transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics [1] was originally published in 1986 and is now about 14 years old. It is an explicitly nonlocal and Lorentz invariant alternative to the Copenhagen interpretation. It interprets the formalism for a quantum interaction as describing a “handshake” between retarded waves (ψ) and advanced waves (ψ^{*}) for each quantum event or “transaction” in which energy, momentum, angular momentum, and other conserved quantities are transferred. The transactional interpretation offers the advantages that (1) it is actually “visible” in the formalism of quantum mechanics, (2) it is economical, involving fewer independent assumptions than its rivals, (3) it is paradoxfree, resolving all of the paradoxes of standard quantum theory including nonlocality and wave function collapse, (4) it does not give a privileged role to observers or measurements, and (5) it permits the visualization of quantum events. We will review the transactional interpretation and some of its applications to “quantum paradoxes.”

A transactional interpretation of interaction free measurements
View Description Hide DescriptionIn 1993 Elitzur and Vaidmannl (EV) demonstrated that quantum mechanics permits the use of light quanta to examine an object without a single photon having actually interacted with the object, requiring only the possibility of such an interaction. The EV scenario has recently been carried out in the laboratory and its predictions verified. EV discussed their scenario in terms of the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, in which the interactionfree result is rather mysterious, using a “knowledge” not available classically. They also used the EverettWheeler interpretation and suggested that the information indicating the presence of the opaque object comes from an interaction in a separate EverettWheeler universe, with the information communicated to our universe through the absence of interference. In the present work, we will examine the EV interactionfree scenario in terms of the transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics2 and will provide a more plausible account of the physical processes that make possible quantum interactionfree measurements.

Complete positivity in quantum open system dynamics
View Description Hide DescriptionThe statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics requires that, while evolving in time, states of quantum systems keep a positive spectrum of eigenvalues. That is, the timeevolution must be positivity preserving or, in short, positive. When dealing with dissipative quantum systems, positivity is no longer sufficient. The presence of entangled states makes it necessary that the timeevolution be completely positive. In this paper we discuss this latter notion in relation to simple positivity and quantum entanglement.

Quantum 1/f effect in spin decoherence rates and quantum computing
View Description Hide DescriptionThe quantum 1/f effect is a fundamental new aspect of quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics, and quantum field theory in general, with practical importance in most hightechnology applications. It is based on the reaction of material currents to their spontaneous emission of infraquanta such as photons, gravitons, transversal phonons, spin waves, etc. It is the result of decoherence of entangled states of particles and their spontaneous bremsstrahlung, a consequence of infrareddivergent interactions between particles and their field. It is the quantum manifestation of classical turbulence and it represents the most fundamental form of quantum chaos. It is described by the simple universal formula of conventional and coherent quantum 1/f noise, important in engineering, science and technology. It provides a new physical meaning to the notion of “constant current,” in time and space, similar to the 1937 definition of elastic processes by Bloch and Nordsieck. Finally, it is an interesting aspect of the concrete way in which matter generates its forms of existence, for instance time and space. Quantum 1/f spin decoherence rates, known to severely limit the performance of quantum computers, are shown here to be also affected by the quantum 1/f effect. Indeed, the elementary spinflip process has a bremsstrahlung amplitude, leading to a nonstationary state with 1/f quantum fluctuations, and a disentangled system of nonlocalized lowfrequency photons with negative conditional entropy. Thus, decoherence is due to the entangled system’s interaction with the rest of the world, as is its quantum 1/f fluctuation which can be expressed in qubits. Increasing the spinexcess n is one way to reduce these fluctuations. In general, we find that both decoherence and its quantum 1/f noise could be controlled by better insulating the system in a new way.

A principle behind nocloning and noimprinting theorems
View Description Hide DescriptionConsider a situation in which a quantum system is secretly prepared in a state chosen from the known set of n states. We present a principle that gives a definite distinction between the operations that preserve the marginal states of the system and those that do not. Many types of nocloning and noimprinting conditions for mixed states and entangled states can easily be derived from this principle. The principle also gives a unified view on how various schemes of quantum cryptography work.

From superluminal velocity to time machines?
View Description Hide DescriptionVarious experiments have shown superluminal group and signal velocities. Experiments were essentially carried out with microwave tunneling [1], with infrared waves by frustrated total internal reflection [2] and in a linear resonant molecular absorber with millimeter waves [3]. According to text books a superluminal signal velocity violates Einstein causality implying that cause and effect can be changed and time machines known from science fiction could be constructed. This naive analysis, however, assumes a signal to be a point in the time dimension neglecting its finite duration. A signal is not presented by a point nor by its front, but by its total length. On the other hand a signal energy is finite thus its frequency band is limited, the latter is a fundamental physical property in consequence of field quantization with quantum All superluminal experiments have been carried out with rather narrow frequency bands. The narrow band width is a condition sine qua non to avoid pulse reshaping of the signal due to the dispersion relation of the tunnelling barrier [4] or of any interacting medium. In consequence of the narrow frequency band width the time duration of the signal is long preserving causality in this way. However, superluminal signal velocity shortens the otherwise luminal time span between cause and effect.

Hierarchic theory of matter, general for liquids and solids: Ice, water & phase transitions
View Description Hide DescriptionA background of new Hierarchic theory, general for solids and liquids (Kaivarainen, 1993, 1995, 2000) is described and illustrated by mean of computer simulations on examples of pure water and ice. Condensed matter is considered as gas of 3D standing waves (collective excitations) of different nature: thermal de Broglie waves (waves B), IR photons and thermal phonons. The agreement between theoretical and available experimental results is very good. The evidence of highT mesoscopic molecular Bose condensation (BC) in water and ice in form of coherent clusters is obtained. The new mechanisms of the 1st and 2nd order phase transitions, related to such clusters formation, their assembly and symmetry change, has been proposed. Theory unifies dynamics and thermodynamics on microscopic, mesoscopic, and macroscopic scales in terms of quantum physics. The idea of new optoacoustic device: Comprehensive Analyzer of Matter Properties (CAMP) with huge informational possibilities, based on Hierarchic theory is described.

Complexity of individual objects without including probability concept: Asymmetry, observer and perception problems
View Description Hide DescriptionThe measure of complexity of an individual object is considered. It is based on the measure of dissymmetry contained in the object and its description. As the qualitative measure of dissymmetry the orbit power of an object automorphism is suggested. As examples of application to mathematical physics we consider the parameter distributions and form of figures. Some strict definitions and theorems are formulated for the complexity measure for Morse function and geometrical figures. The applications to dynamical systems and differential equations are also discussed. Thus the main issues considered in proposed paper are follows: Considering and counting asymmetry of the individual object as the measure of complexity. Considering the pattern of external situation and their complexity. Investigation of internal structure of observer and forwarding the measurement processes description into formal scheme of complexity investigation. Introducing the first steps in considering interrelations of hierarchical object and hierarchical observer.

Chaos in manufacturing systems: Study of different cases
View Description Hide DescriptionSince a few years, an abundant literature has been published in order to proof the existence of chaotic behaviors both in the field of science and in the field of technique. Until now very few articles studied the conduct of manufacturing production systems. Apparently some production systems let us think that their behavior might be chaotic. Nevertheless, in our opinion, the proof of existing chaos in the production systems has not been totally confirmed. The works presented in this article are aimed to make obvious and to prove the existence of chaotic behaviors in manufacturing production systems. After the presentation of the interest of this study in a manufacturing production environment, we present our analysis method of the dynamic of nonplanned production systems. We then justify the choices which have been made regarding in particular: the subsystem in which our study is made, the variable of interest (temporal average of the number of parts in a waiting line), the determinism of the system parameters, and the imposed balance conditions (in the sense that the number of parts is finished regardless of the considered instant). In the second part are presented the results obtained with two manufacturing systems, both very simple and very similar, although they give very different results. We then compare the results with the rules of assignment and management of different waiting lines. In the last part, we show that an actual system, under certain management conditions, can also present a chaotic behavior. This study has been realized from the modeling of a flexible assembly cell.

Chaos synchronization via sliding modes
View Description Hide DescriptionIn this paper, an observability approach to the synchronisation of chaotic systems is presented. The proposed method allows for the reconstruction of a chaotic attractor from a scalar signal and its derivatives, and it refers to output feedback control techniques for uncertain nonlinear systems. Due to the robustness properties of variable structure control with sliding modes, it is possible to achieve synchronization also if some mismatching in the system model is present.

Autonomous selection and indefinite goals: A system using Bezier curves as dynamically redefined transition rules
View Description Hide DescriptionAt the beginning, we point out a serious problem which arises when we describe the process of the living system as the computational process of a formal system. The problem is the indefiniteness in terms of correspondences of input and output states. Such indefiniteness can be grasped as the contradiction in a formal system. That is why we can say that the process of the living system is executed properly in spite of the existence of such a serious problem. The process proceeding in spite of a contradiction is represented by a perpetual change of partial function as a transition rule depending on the state. To achieve this purpose, we introduce the Bezier curve as a partial function. Given some control points in a plane, the Bezier curve that roughly connects all control points is calculated, and then all control points are moved horizontally and vertically at the same time as far as such moves can cross the Bezier curve. The new configuration of control points yields for the new Bezier curve. This sequential process is iterated, and that a transition rule of the Bezier curve is recursively redefined. As a result, we have found that the system can generate particular output states even though the system is constructed without any explicit mechanism ensuring such events. Finally, we show that our system does work as a conceptual tool to embody ourselves who observe the process of the living system. A framework of the argument presented here is socalled internal measurement [1,2].

Anticipatory computing in the attitude control of satellites
View Description Hide DescriptionIn the paper we concentrate on the attitude dynamics of a dumbbell satellite on an equatorial low Earth orbit. This problem is originated by the application of tethered satellite systems formed by the space shuttle and a tethered subsatellite. These systems are widely studied by NASA and ESA with both theoretical and experimental methods (in the recent years two space shuttle missions performed experiments with tethered satellite systems). The equations of motion of such satellites form a set of highly nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations, which exhibits very unpleasant behavior when parameters like the length of the dumbbell and the orbit eccentricity is varied. We could detect nonlinear resonances, consecutive period doubling or chaotic oscillations. These are critical phenomena because at deployment or retrieval procedures the length is always changed at each missions. The main aim of this work is to obtain a simple feedback type control between the pitch angle and the length of the dumbbell satellite to get stable behavior in attitude dynamics. By using analytical methods we could derive an approximate equation of motion, which can be used as a model of the “real” system of equations. The approximate equation can be studied by applying nonlinear analysis and bifurcation theory and the conclusions are used as anticipations in building the feedback control.