SHORT DISTANCE BEHAVIOR OF FUNDAMENTAL INTERATIONS: 31st Coral Gables Conference on High Energy Physics and Cosmology

Fiftieth Anniversary of Group Contractions
View Description Hide DescriptionExactly fifty years ago, an article was published defining a specific limit operation for continuous groups, called contraction. The consequences of the operation on the representations were considered with applications to the rotation and Poincaré groups. Here, one of the authors, describes the circumstances which led to the genesis of this work.

The Layered Structure of The Universe
View Description Hide DescriptionIt has now become a habit for the cosmologists to introduce attraction or repulsion generating substances to describe the observed cosmological behavior of matter. Examples are dark energy to provide repulsive force to cause increasing acceleration accompanying the expansion of the universe, quintessence providing repulsive force. In this paper we believe that what is needed in the final analysis is attraction and repulsion. We show here that universe can be conceived to consist of attractive and repulsive layers of matter expanding with increasing acceleration. The generalized theory of gravitation as developed originally by Einstein and Schrödinger as a non‐symmetric theory was modified by this author using Bianchi‐Einstein Identities yielding coupling between the field and electric charge as well as between the field and magnetic charge, and there appears a fundamental length parameter r_{o} where quintessence constitute magnetic repulsive layers while dark energy and all other kinds of names invented by cosmologists refer to attractive electric layers. This layered structure of the universe resembles the layered structure of the elementary particle predicted by this theory decades ago (1, 3, and 6). This implies a layer Doughnut structure of the universe. We have therefore, obtained a unification of the structure of the universe and the structure of elementary particles. Overall the forces consist of long range attractive, long range repulsive, short‐range attractive, and short‐range repulsive variety. We further discovered the existence of space oscillations whose roles in the expansion of the universe with increasing acceleration and further the impact in the propagation of the gravitational waves can be expected to play a role in their observation.

Determining the Acceleration of the Universe as a Function of Redshift and Implications for Dark Energy
View Description Hide DescriptionOne way to understand the properties of the dark energy is to study the acceleration of the universe as a function of redshift. This can be done without making assumptions regarding the nature and evolution of the dark energy through the use of measurements of the coordinate distance to sources with redshifts between zero and a few. It is shown here that the dimensionless acceleration parameter q(z) can be written as a function of redshift and the first and second derivatives of the coordinate distance. The use of this method to determine the acceleration of the universe as a function of redshift is discussed.

Options for cosmology at redshifts above one
View Description Hide DescriptionWe show that detailed exploration of the 1 < z < 2 redshift region can provide for definitive testing not only of the standard inflationary cosmological paradigm with its fine‐tuned cosmological constant and its mysteriously late (z < 1) onset of cosmic acceleration, but also for the non fine‐tuned, alternate conformal cosmological model, a cosmology which accelerates both above and below z = 1. In particular we confront both of these models with the currently available type Ia supernovae standard candle and extended FRII radio source standard yardstick data, with these latter data being particularly pertinent as they already include a sizeable number of points in the 1 < z < 2 region. We find that both models are able to account for all available 0 < z < 2 data equally well; and with the conformal model explicitly being able to fit the data while being an accelerating one in the z > 1 region, one is thus currently unable to ascertain whether the universe is accelerating or decelerating between z = 1 and z = 2. To be able to visualize the supernovae and radio galaxy data simultaneously, we present a representation of the radio galaxy data in terms of an equivalent apparent magnitude Hubble diagram. We discuss briefly some implications of the anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background for the conformal theory, and show that in that theory fluctuations which set in at around nucleosynthesis can readily generate the first peak in the anisotropy data.

Theoretical Overview of Lorentz and CPT Violation
View Description Hide DescriptionIn this talk, I discuss some recent theoretical progress concerning the Lorentz‐ and CPT‐violating extension of the standard model. The results summarized include the development of an explicit connection between noncommutative field theory and the standard model extension, placement of new bounds in the photon sector, calculation of one‐loop renormalization beta functions in QED, and an analysis of field redefinitions.

Lorentz Violation and Spacetime Supersymmetry
View Description Hide DescriptionSupersymmetry and Lorentz invariance are closely related as both are spacetime symmetries. Terms can be added to Lagrangians that explicitly break either supersymmetry or Lorentz invariance. It is possible to include terms which violate Lorentz invariance but maintain invariance under supersymmetric transformations. I illustrate this with some simple extensions of the original Wess‐Zumino model.

Couplings varying on cosmological scales and Lorentz breaking
View Description Hide DescriptionIn the context of N = 4 supergravity in four dimensions, we present an exact classical solution that leads to spacetime‐dependent electromagnetic couplings and discuss the ensuing Lorentz‐violating effects. We comment briefly on experimental bounds.

Charge Conjugation and Parity Violations as a Signature for Black Hole Formation in Hadron Collisions
View Description Hide DescriptionBlack hole formation (BHF) in hadron collisions is a subject of great current interest. If BHF occurs, we might expect large violations of baryon number, charge conjugation (C), parity (P), strangeness, isospin, etc., in such interactions. C and P have not been well tested in hadronic interactions. I propose new tests of C and P that can be adapted to a variety of BHF scenarios. Large effects, such as ∼10% longitudinal polarizations of outgoing particles, might be expected. These tests may provide more sensitive searches for BHF, or other new physics, at existing colliders.

The Physics of RHIC Spin
View Description Hide DescriptionWe have started a program of colliding polarized protons in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven. This is the first polarized proton collider. We plan to probe the spin structure of the proton with strongly interacting probes, polarized quarks and gluons, to complement work with polarized lepton probes which observed that only 25% of the proton spin is carried by quarks and anti‐quarks. We will also use parity violation to search for new physics, such as quark substructure or a Z’ boson. The collider is unique. We will be probing QCD with a completely new tool.

Measurement of the structure functions and with the CLAS at Jefferson Lab
View Description Hide DescriptionInelastic scattering using polarized nucleon targets and polarized charged lepton beams allows the extraction of the structure functions g _{1} and g _{2} which provide information on the spin structure of the nucleon. A program designed to study such processes has been underway in Jefferson Lab since 1998. A polarized electron beam, solid polarized NH _{3} and ND _{3} targets and the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) in Hall B were used to collect the desired data. 3 billion events were accumulated during the first run, and over 23 billion events were accumulated during the second run. The measurements cover the resonance region with unprecedented detail and add significantly to the DIS data set at low to moderate Q ^{2} and moderate to high x.

Neutrino Mass Matrix and Hierarchy
View Description Hide DescriptionWe build a model to describe neutrinos based on strict hierarchy, incorporating as much as possible, the latest known data, for Δ_{ sol } and Δ_{ atm }, and for the mixing angles determined from neutrino oscillation experiments, including that from KamLAND. Since the hierarchy assumption is a statement about mass ratios, it lets us obtain all three neutrino masses. We obtain a mass matrix, M _{ν} and a mixing matrix, U, where both M _{ν} and U are given in terms of powers of Λ, the analog of the Cabibbo angle λ in the Wolfenstein representation, and two parameters, ρ and κ, each of order one. The expansion parameter, Λ, is defined by Λ^{2} = m _{2}/m _{3} = √(Δ_{ sol }/Δ_{ atm }) ≈ 0.16, and ρ expresses our ignorance of the lightest neutrino mass m _{1}, (m _{1} = ρΛ^{4} m _{3}), while κ scales s _{13} to the experimental upper limit, s _{13} = κΛ^{2} ≈ 0.16κ. These matrices are similar in structure to those for the quark and lepton families, but with Λ about 1.6 times larger than the λ for the quarks and charged leptons. The upper limit for the effective neutrino mass in double β‐decay experiments is 4 × 10^{−3} eV if s _{13} = 0 and 6 × 10^{−3} eV if s _{13} is maximal. The model, which is fairly unique, given the hierarchy assumption and the data, is compared to supersymmetric extension and texture zero models of mass generation.

Recent SNO Results
View Description Hide DescriptionSolar Neutrinos from the decay of ^{8}B have been detected at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) by charged current (CC) and neutral current (NC) interactions on deuterium and elastic scattering (ES) of electrons. The SNO data indicate that with the assumption of undistorted ^{8}B shape, the flux for v_{e} is for a kinetic energy threshold of 5 MeV. The non‐v_{e} flux is . This provides strong evidence for solar v_{e} flavor transformation. The day and night solar neutrino energy spectra and rates have also been measured. For CC events, the v_{e} asymmetry is . By additionally constraining the total (NC) flux of active neutrinos to have no asymmetry, the v_{e} asymmetry becomes . A global solar neutrino analysis strongly favors the Large Mixing Angle (LMA) solution in a two‐flavor neutrino oscillation model.

The Weak Production of Lambda Particles in Electron and Muon Scattering from Protons from Near Threshold to the 5.0 GeV Region
View Description Hide DescriptionWe calculate the differential cross sections for the weak strangeness changing reactions e ^{−} + p → Λ + v_{e} and μ^{−} + p → v _{μ} + Λ. We study the former reaction for energies near threshold and we study the later reaction from energies near threshold to 5.0 GeV. We do this because the electron induced reaction has been proposed as possible experiment at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility by which the electron neutrino mass might be measured. We study the muon induced reaction over a wider range of energies because it might be used to study form factors which are more difficult or impossible to observe in an electron induced reactions due to the small size of the electron mass. In particular we obtain the induced pseudoscalar form factor contributions to the differential cross section as well as the contributions of the F_{E} and F_{S} form factors to try to determine if it is feasible to observe them. We use an SU(3) based semi‐phenomenological calculation to obtain the form factors from electron scattering data from nucleons and from Λ beta decay. Finally we comment on what might be learned from these reactions.

Detection of High Energy Cosmic Ray with the Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter, ATIC
View Description Hide DescriptionATIC is a balloon‐borne investigation of cosmic ray spectra, from below 50 GeV to near 100 TeV total energy, using a fully active Bismuth Germanate (BGO) calorimeter. It is equipped with the first large area mosaic of small fully depleted silicon detector pixels capable of charge identification in cosmic rays from H to Fe. As a redundancy check for the charge identification and a coarse particle tracking system, three projective layers of x‐y scintillator hodoscopes were employed, above, in the center and below a Carbon interaction ‘target’. Very high energy γ‐rays and their energy spectrum may provide insight to the flux of extremely high energy neutrinos which will be investigated in detail with several proposed cubic kilometer scale neutrino observatories in the next decade.

The KamLAND Experiment‐Introduction and First Results
View Description Hide DescriptionThe KamLAND neutrino experiment, located in the Kamioka Underground Observatory in Japan, is taking data. In this paper we first review the motivation for the experiment and describe the experimental setup. The main part of the paper is devoted to presentation and discussion of the first measurement by the experiment of v̄_{e} ’s from nuclear power plants. A deficit in the number of events is observed. Interpreted in terms of neutrino oscillations, only the MSW LMA solution to the solar neutrino problem is consistent with the KamLAND measurement and CPT invariance.

Quantizing Dirac and Nambu Brackets
View Description Hide DescriptionWe relate classical and quantum Dirac and Nambu brackets. At the classical level, we use the relations between the two brackets to gain some insight into the Jacobi identity for Dirac brackets, among other things. At the quantum level, we suggest that the Nambu bracket is the preferred method for introducing constraints, although at the expense of some unorthodox behavior, which we describe in detail.

Deformation Quantization of Nambu Mechanics
View Description Hide DescriptionPhase Space is the framework best suited for quantizing superintegrable systems—systems with more conserved quantities than degrees of freedom. In this quantization method, the symmetry algebras of the hamiltonian invariants are preserved most naturally, as illustrated on nonlinear σ‐models, specifically for Chiral Models and de Sitter N‐spheres. Classically, the dynamics of superintegrable models such as these is automatically also described by Nambu Brackets involving the extra symmetry invariants of them. The phase‐space quantization worked out then leads to the quantization of the corresponding Nambu Brackets, validating Nambu’s original proposal, despite excessive fears of inconsistency which have arisen over the years. This is a pedagogical talk based on [1, 2], stressing points of interpretation and care needed in appreciating the consistency of Quantum Nambu Brackets in phase space. For a parallel discussion in Hilbert space, see T Curtright’s contribution in these Proceedings, [hep‐th/0303088].

Super Unification of All Forces
View Description Hide DescriptionThe annihilation of Planck and anti‐Planck mass is paramount in explaining the Big‐Bang. This total release of primordial energy in the form of electromagnetic‐like radiation through ‘nothing’ offers a model similar to the standard model of a Riemannian hypersphere. Our model however would expand radiantly outward from time zero in the form of a hyper‐wave which would carry the total energy of the Big‐Bang with it. By using this wave concept and the Planck force (F _{PL}) inherent in the quantum vacuum, it is possible to explain the space‐time geometry of our universe and complete unification.

Publisher’s Note: Spin Effects in High Energy Scattering in a Simple Constituent Model [AIP Conference Proceedings 624, Cosmology and Elementary Particle Physics, edited by B. N. Kursunoglu et al., pp. 201–210, 2002]
View Description Hide DescriptionThis paper was originally published without the accompanying figures. The complete paper is published in the Appendix of AIP Conference Proceedings 672, Short Distance Behavior of Fundamental Interactions, edited by B. N. Kursunoglu et al., pp. 210–219, 2003. The correct citation to be used for this paper is AIP Conference Proceedings 624, Cosmology and Elementary Particle Physics, edited by B. N. Kursunoglu et al., pp. 201–210, 2002. The online version of this paper has been corrected.