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1.W. J. Richardson, C. R. Green, Jr., C. I. Malme, and D. H. Thompson, Marine Mammals and Noise (Academic Press, San Diego, 2001).
2.K. R. Curtis, B. M. Howe, and J. A. Mercer, “Low-frequency ambient sound in the North Pacific: Long time series observations,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 106, 31893200 (1999).
3.D. Ross, Mechanics of Underwater Noise (Pergamon Press, New York, 1976).
4.D. Ross, “Role of propagation in ambient noise,” in Underwater ambient noise: Proceedings of a conference held at SACLANTCEN on 11–14 May 1982, edited R. Wagstaff and O. Z. Bluy (SACLANT ASW Research Center, La Spezia, Italy, 1982).
5.D. Ross, “On ocean underwater ambient noise,” Acoust. Bull. 18, 58 (1993).
6.G. M. Wenz, “Low-frequency deep-water ambient noise along the Pacific Coast of the United States,” U.S. Navy J. Underwater Acoust. 19, 423444, recently declassified (1969).
7.The NPAL Group (J A. Colosi, B. D. Cornuelle, B. D. Dushaw, M. A. Dzieciuch, B. M. Howe, J. A. Mercer, R. C. Spindel, and P. F. Worcester), “The North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory (NPAL) Experiment,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 109, 2384 (2001).
8.L. L. Mazzuca, “Potential Effects of Low Frequency Sound (LFS) from Commercial Vessels on Large Whales,” Master’s Thesis, School of Marine Affairs, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (2001).
9.R. J. Urick, Principles of Underwater Sound (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1983).
10.M. A. McDonald, J. A. Hildebrand, and S. C. Webb, “Blue and fin whales observed on a seafloor array in the Northeast Pacific,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 98, 712721 (1995).
11.International Whaling Commission (IWC),
12.J. Calambokidis, G. H. Steiger, J. C. Cubbage, K. C. Balcomb, C. Ewald, S. Kruse, R. Wells, and R. Sears, “Sightings and movements of blue whales off central California 1986–88 from photo-identification of individuals,” Rep. Int. Whal. Commn. 12, 343348 (1990).
13.J. Barlow, “Abundance of cetaceans in California waters: I. Ship surveys in summer/fall 1991,” Fish. Bull. 93, 114 (1995).
14.G. M. Wenz, “Acoustic ambient noise in the ocean: spectra and sources,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 34, 19361956 (1962).

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