Index of content:
Volume 103, Issue 3, March 1998
- UNDERWATER SOUND 
103(1998); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.421272View Description Hide Description
This work addresses the inverse problem of the identification of a passive three-dimensional impenetrable object in a shallow-water environment. The latter is assumed to have flat perfectly reflecting (sound-soft top and sound-hard bottom) boundaries and therefore acts as a guide for acoustic waves. These waves are employed to interrogate the object and the scattered acoustic wavefield is measured on the surface of a (virtual) vertically oriented cylinder (of finite or infinite radius, corresponding to near- or far-field measurements) fully enclosing the object. The direct scattering problem is resolved in approximate manner by employing, in a local manner, the known separated-variable solution for a scattering by a vertically oriented cylinder in a perfect waveguide. The inverse problem is resolved in the same manner (i.e., with the same approximate field ansatz) by least-squares matching of theoretical fields (for trial objects) to the measured field. Examples are given of successful shape reconstructions for two types of immersed objects. This manner of solving approximately both the forward and inverse problems is generalized to the case of a body of shallow water with an elastic seabed.
103(1998); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.421273View Description Hide Description
A model for difference frequency backscatter from trapped bubbles in sandy sediments was developed. A nonlinear volume scattering coefficient was computed via a technique similar to that of Ostrovsky and Sutin [“Nonlinear sound scattering from subsurface bubble layers,” in Natural Physical Sources of Underwater Sound, edited by B. R. Kerman (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1993), pp. 363–373], which treats the case of bubbles surrounded by water. Biot’s poroelastic theory is incorporated to model the acoustics of the sediment. Biot fast and slow waves are included by modeling the pore fluid as a superposition of two acoustic fluids with effective densities that differ from the pore fluid’s actual density and account for its confinement within sediment pores. The principle of acoustic reciprocity is employed to develop an expression for the backscattering strength. Model behavior is consistent with expectations, based on the known behavior of bubbles in simpler fluid media.
103(1998); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.421274View Description Hide Description
This paper considers the problem of calculating the reflection coefficient of a plane wave incident on an inhomogeneous elastic solid layer of finite thickness, overlying a semi-infinite, homogeneous solid substrate. The physical properties of the inhomogeneous layer, namely the density, compressional (sound) speed, shear speed, and attenuation, are all assumed to vary with depth. It is shown that, provided terms involving the gradient of the shear speed and of the shear modulus are ignored, and volume coupling between compressional and shear waves is neglected, analytical solutions of the resulting equations can be obtained. The assumptions made are justified at most frequencies of practical interest in underwater acoustics. In the case of a solid whose density and shear speed are constant, the results obtained are exact solutions of the full equations of motion, and may usefully be compared with numerical solutions in which the variation in sound speed through the layer is represented by a number of homogeneous sublayers. It is concluded that, with realistic sediment and substrate properties, a surprisingly large number of sublayers can be needed to give accurate results.
103(1998); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.421275View Description Hide Description
Two sets of equations, covering all world oceans and seas, are presented to calculate pressure from depth for the computation of sound speed, and depth from pressure for use in ocean engineering. They are based on the algorithm of UNESCO 1983 [N. P. Fofonoff and R. C. Millard, Jr., Unesco Tech. Papers in Mar. Sci. No. 44 (1983)], and on calculations from temperature and salinity profiles. The pressure to depth conversion is presented first. The equations can be used in those cases where the desired accuracy is reduced to ±0.8 m. The equations to convert depth to pressure provide an overall accuracy between ±8000 Pa and ±1000 Pa. This leads to errors in sound speed consistently smaller than ±0.02 m/s. The discussion, and comparisons with results and other formulas, suggest that the new equations are a substantial improvement on the previous simplified ones, which should now be abandoned.