Index of content:
Volume 104, Issue 1, July 1998
- BIOACOUSTICS 
Detection of ultrasonic tones and simulated dolphin echolocation clicks by a teleost fish, the American shad (Alosa sapidissima)104(1998); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.423255View Description Hide Description
The authors previously reported that American shad (Alosa sapidissima) can detectsounds from 100 Hz to 180 kHz, with two regions of best sensitivity, one from 200 to 800 Hz and the other from 25 to 150 kHz [Mann et al., Nature 389, 341 (1997)]. These results demonstrated ultrasonichearing by shad, but thresholds at lower frequencies were potentially masked by background noise in the experimental room. In this study, the thresholds of the American shad in a quieter and smaller tank, as well as thresholds for detecting simulated echolocation sounds of bottlenosed dolphins was determined. Shad had lower thresholds for detection (from 0.2 to 0.8 kHz) in the quieter and smaller tank compared with the previous experiment, with low-frequency background noise but similar thresholds at ultrasonic frequencies. Shad were also able to detect echolocation clicks with a threshold of 171 dB re: 1 μPa peak to peak. If spherical spreading and an absorption coefficient of 0.02 dB/m of dolphin echolocation clicks are assumed, shad should be able to detect echolocating Tursiops truncatus at ranges up to 187 m. The authors propose that ultrasonichearing evolved in shad in response to selection pressures from echolocating odontocete cetaceans.
One tone, two ears, three dimensions: A robotic investigation of pinnae movements used by rhinolophid and hipposiderid bats104(1998); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.423256View Description Hide Description
Bats, which echolocate using broadband calls, are believed to employ the passive acoustic filtering properties of the head and pinnae to provide spectral cues which encode 3-D target angle. Microchiropteran species whose calls consist of a single, constant frequency harmonic (i.e., some species in the families Rhinolophidae and Hipposideridae) may create additional acoustic localization cues via vigorous pinna movements. In this work, two types of echolocation cues generated by moving a pair of receivers aboard a model sensor head are investigated. In the first case, it is supposed that a common 3-D echolocation principle employed by all bats is the creation of alternative viewing perspectives, and that constant frequency (CF) echolocators use pinna movement rather than morphology to alter the acoustic axes of their perceptual systems. Alternatively, it is possible rhinolophids and hipposiderids move their ears to create dynamic cues—in the form of frequency and amplitude modulations—which vary systematically with target elevation. Here the use of binaural and monaural timing cues derived from amplitude modulated echo envelopes are investigated. In this case, pinna mobility provides an echolocator with a mechanism for creating dramatic temporal cues for directional sensing which, unlike interaural timing differences, do not degrade with head size.