Volume 104, Issue 1, July 1998
Index of content:
- SELECTED RESEARCH ARTICLES 
Measurements with reticulated vitreous carbon stacks in thermoacoustic prime movers and refrigerators104(1998); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.424055View Description Hide Description
Reticulated vitreous carbon has been successfully used as a stack material in thermoacoustic prime movers and refrigerators. It is a rigid glassy carbonmaterial, with a porous spongelike structure. Test results indicate peak pressure amplitudes of up to 32% in a prime mover, and refrigeration performance comparable to that of a traditional plastic roll stack.
Application of pulse compression techniques to broadband acoustic scattering by live individual zooplankton104(1998); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.424056View Description Hide Description
Distinct frequency dependencies of the acoustic backscattering by zooplankton of different anatomical groups have been observed in our previous studies [, ICES J. Mar. Sci. 49, 97–106 (1992); Stanton et al., ICES J. Mar. Sci. 51, 505–512 (1994)]. Based mainly on the spectral information, scattering models have been proposed to describe the backscattering mechanisms of different zooplankton groups [, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 236–253 (1998b)]. In this paper, an in-depth study of pulse compression (PC) techniques is presented to characterize the temporal, spectral, and statistical signatures of the acoustic backscattering by zooplankton of different gross anatomical classes. Data collected from various sources are analyzed and the results are consistent with our acoustic models. From compressed pulse (CP) outputs for all three different zooplankton groups, two major arrivals from different parts of the animal body can be identified: a primary and a secondary arrival. (1) Shrimplike animals (Euphausiids and decapod shrimp; near broadside incidence only): the primary one is from the front interface(interface closest to the transducer) of the animal and the secondary arrival is from the back interface; (2) gas-bearing animals (Siphonophores): the primary arrival is from the gas inclusion and the secondary arrival is from the body tissue (“local acoustic center of mass”); and (3) elastic shelled animals (Gastropods): the primary one is from the front interface and the secondary arrival corresponds to the subsonic Lamb wave that circumnavigates the surface of the shell. Statistical analysis of these arrivals is used to successfully infer the size of the individual animals. In conjunction with different aspects of PC techniques explored in this paper, a concept of partial wave target strength (PWTS) is introduced to describe scattering by the different CP highlights. Furthermore, temporal gating of the CP output allows rejection of unwanted signals, improves the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the spectra of selected partial waves of interest, and provides a better understanding of the scattering mechanism of the animals. In addition, it is found that the averaged PWTS can be used to obtain a more quantitative scattering characterization for certain animals such as siphonophores.