Index of content:
Volume 104, Issue 4, October 1998
- NONLINEAR ACOUSTICS 
104(1998); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.423720View Description Hide Description
A time-domain numerical model is presented for simulating the finite-amplitude focused acoustic pulse propagation in a dissipative and nonlinear medium with a symmetrical source geometry. In this method, the main effects responsible in finite-amplitude wave propagation, i.e., diffraction, nonlinearity, and absorption, are taken into account. These effects are treated independently using the method of fractional steps with a second-order operator-splitting algorithm. In this method, the acoustic beam propagates, plane-by-plane, from the surface of a highly focused radiator up to its focus. The results of calculations in an ideal (linear and nondissipative) medium show the validity of the model for simulating the effect of diffraction in highly focused pulse propagation. For real media, very good agreement was obtained in the shape of the theoretical and experimental pressure-time waveforms. A discrepancy in the amplitudes was observed with a maximum of around 20%, which can be explained by existing sources of error in our measurements and on the assumptions inherent in our theoretical model. The model has certain advantages over other time-domain methods previously reported in that it: (1) allows for arbitrary absorption and dispersion, and (2) makes use of full diffraction formulation. The latter point is particularly important for studying intense sources with high focusing gains.
104(1998); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.423768View Description Hide Description
An explanation is provided for the influence of relatively small changes in liquidtemperature on the hot spot within a sonoluminescence bubble. This influence derives from a change in the (stable) equilibrium mass of the bubble due to a variation of the gas solubility in the liquid with temperature. If the acoustic drive amplitude is held constant, a change in the liquidtemperature has a large or small effect depending on the variability of the solubility with temperature. For a gas like xenon, which has rapidly decreasing solubility in water with increasing temperature, a decrease in watertemperature shifts the stable mass exchange equilibrium to a smaller bubble size. This increases the ratio of maximum to minimum bubble radius over an acoustic cycle, resulting in a much higher hot spot temperature. In contrast helium has very little variation of solubility with temperature near room temperature; therefore the hot spot temperature is relatively insensitive to variations in the liquidtemperature outside a helium bubble.