Volume 104, Issue 5, November 1998
Index of content:
- SELECTED RESEARCH ARTICLES 
104(1998); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.423910View Description Hide Description
Pool boiling experiments from a platinum wire heater in FC-72 liquid were conducted under terrestrial and microgravity conditions, both with and without the presence of a high-intensity acoustic standing wave within the fluid. The purpose of this research was to study the interaction between an acoustic field and a pool boiling system in normal gravity and microgravity. The absence of buoyancy in microgravity complicates the process of boiling. The acoustic force on a vapor bubblegenerated from a heated wire in a standing wave was shown to be able to play the role of buoyancy in microgravity. The microgravity environment was achieved with 0.6 and 2.1-s drop towers. The sound was transmitted through the fluid medium by means of a half wavelength sonic transducer driven at 10.18 kHz. At high enough acoustic pressure amplitudes cavitation and streaming began playing an important role in vapor bubble dynamics and heat transfer. Several different fixed heat fluxes were chosen for the microgravity experiment and the effects of acoustics on the surface temperature of the heater were recorded and the vapor bubble movement was filmed. Video images of the pool boiling processes and heat transfer data are presented.
Effects of amplitude nonlinearity on phoneme recognition by cochlear implant users and normal-hearing listeners104(1998); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.423912View Description Hide Description
It is widely assumed that the proper transformation of acoustic amplitude to electric amplitude is a critical factor affecting speech recognition in cochlear implant users. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of instantaneous nonlinear amplitude mapping on vowel and consonant recognition in both cochlear implant users and normal-hearing listeners. A four-channel noise-bandspeech processor was implemented, reducing spectral information to four bands. A power-law transformation was applied to the amplitude mapping stage in the speech processor design, and the exponent of the power function varied from a strongly compressive to a weakly compressive value for implant listeners and from 0.3 to 3.0 for acoustic listeners. Results for implants showed that best performance was achieved with an exponent of about 0.2, and performance gradually deteriorated when either more compressive or less compressive exponents were applied. The loudness growth functions of the four activated electrodes in each subject were measured and those data were well fit by a power function with a mean exponent of 2.72. The results indicated that best performance was achieved when the normal loudness growth was restored. For acoustic listeners, results were similar to those observed with cochlear implant listeners, except that best performance was achieved with no amplitude nonlinearity The similarity of results in both acoustic and electric stimulation indicated that the performance deterioration observed for extreme nonlinearity was due to similar perceptualeffects. The function relating amplitude mapping exponent and performance was relatively flat, indicating that phoneme recognition was only mildly affected by amplitude nonlinearity.